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BIO345- Lecture 1

QuestionAnswer
What does scientific advancement require? Accumulating knowledge through experimentation
What's evolutionary biology? The science devoted to answering 1) Adaptation (How populations change through time in response to modification of their environment), 2) Diversity (How new species come into being)
Why isn't religion a science? Religion's a strong belief in a supernatural power, and the existence of a supernatural power isn't objectively verifiable
What's induction and why doesn't science advance through it? Induction's when you derive general principles from particular facts or instances, but induction can lead to incorrect conclusion (like the earth being flat because we can't see it curve).
How does science advance and what's induction's role in science? Science advances through deductive reasoning (conclusions follow from stated premises), aka the scientific method. Induction's used to create hypotheses that can be tested through experimentation.
Describe the scientific method. 1) Hypothesis, 2) Test, 3) Predictions, 4) Conclusions
How can you get a theory? When you continually test a hypothesis without rejection
What's a theory? A hypothesis or group of related hypotheses that have survived being tested a great many times in a number of different ways.
What was Ptolemy's theory of the solar system? That the earth was the center of the solar system.
What was Copernicus's theory of the solar system? That the sun was the center of the solar system.
What did Galileo do? Further confirmed and supported Copernicus's theory of the sun being the center of the solar system
What are three theories of the origin of biodiversity? Creationism, transformism, & organic evolution
What's Creationism? There are independent origins for each form (and no change), but extinction and multiple episodes are allowed.
What's Transformationism? The number of species remains constant, they just simply change
What's “Organic evolution?” “descent with modification”- There are inherited changes in populations of organisms which leads to differences among them
What's the problem with creationism and transformationism? They don't produce testable predictions, so this can't lead to scientific progress.
What's the best explanation for all birds having wings and all mammals having hair? These features were inherited from a common ancestor
What's one wait to explain why pests become resistant to pesticides and why the flu becomes worse every year? Adaptation
What are the 3 implications of evolution? 1) Common inheritance links all organisms in a heirarchy of life, 2) Life as we know it has been around long enough for diversity to accumulate, & 3) All evolutionary phenomena explained by natural laws (like gravity) aren't special in creation
What are 3 reasons we study evolution? 1) Curiosity, 2) It allows us to understand why certain features have come into existence (like sprained ankles swelling), & 3) to preserve biodiversity
Explain “Scalae Naturae” In the middle ages, religious overtones were incorporated into evolutionary theory, so this led to the belief in there being an order in life that reflected the progression of creation (with humans on top).
What are Lamarck's Laws? The principle of use and disuse & the inheritance of acquired characteristics
What was the significance of Lyell's “Principles of Geology?” It focused on Unitarianism- that the forces of nature are constant and have existed for all time
What was the significance of Malthus's “Essay on Populations”? It explained that more people were produced than there were resources available, so so this is why there's poverty & disease
Describe Darwin's trip and its significance Lyell's “Principles of Geology”, unusual land formations, & Finch bill variation. Used Malthus's “Essay on Populations,” to put together the idea of evolution by natural selection
Explain Darwin's idea of “evolution by natural selection.” Reproductive ability + limited resources -> struggle for existence [+heritable variation] -> natural selection [+changing environments] -> evolution
What's natural selection? The persistence of adaptive traits
What's evolution? Differences in species due to adaption
Why was Darwin's theory of evolution significant this time?
How was Darwin's theory of evolution and natural selection received outside of the religious community? Evolution was readily accepted, natural selection wasn't
Explain Lamarck's 1st law- the principle of use & disuse Organisms have a drive to improve, and more frequent use strengthens and enlarges while less use diminishes
Explain Lamarck's 2nd law- the inheritance of acquired characteristics Acquired characteristics are preserve
What's the idea behind spermists It's a mode of inheritance where the entire baby's included in the sperm
What's the idea behind blending inheritance? It's a mode of inheritance where the offspring inherits a mixture of traits from the parents (like blending paint)
What's adaptation? How populations change through time in response to modification of their environment
What's diversity? How new species come into being
What's reason 1 about why natural selection wasn't readily received outside of the religious community, and what was Darwin's response? People thought the age of the earth was a lot younger than was needed to create the diversity Darwin proposed; Darwin had no answer to this
What's reason 2 about why natural selection wasn't readily received outside of the religious community, and what was Darwin's response? People thought that the mode of inheritance was through spermists or blended inheritance, and neither of these would allow for Darwin's idea of the persistence of favorable traits; Darwin's answer=pangenesis (tested & rejected)-> rediscovered Mendels laws
Explain the idea behind pangenesis. Small atomic particles (gemmules) are derived from parents' tissues, incorporated into gametes, and transmitted to the progeny
What's reason 3 about why natural selection wasn't readily received outside of the religious community, and what was Darwin's response? People thought that diversity was created by mutations of large effect, but Darwin proposed that there was selection of mutations of small effect (& if this was it, we should expect to see intermediate structures, & we do)
Created by: 817229501