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Pharmfinal.

QuestionAnswer
What two antibiotics can undergo chelation and irreversibly bind to Al/Mg/Ca/Fe containing medications causing a reduced amount of the drug being absorbed? Tetracycline doxycycline
What is the effect when two drugs combine and you get equal responses of the drug (1+1=2) Addative
What is the effect when two drugs combine and you get an enchanced effect (1+0=2) Potentiation
After how many half-lives will you reach steady state? 4-5
Which is a prodrug (which doesn't have activity until its metabolized in the liver): Lisinopril or enalapril? enalapril.
What is the prodrug that when applied to the cornea gets converted to amfenac, a NSAID nepafenac
What is the definition for drugs that undergo metabolism via phase 1 reactions? drugs are oxidized/reduced to a more polar form
What is the definition for drugs that undergo metabolism via phase 2 reactions? A polar molecular group is conjugated to the drug, which increases its polarity.
What are the phase 1 oxidation reactions? (4) Dealkylation, oxidation, hydroxylation, polarizing atom exchange
What are the phase 1 reduction reactions? (2) Azo-reduction, nitro-reduction
Which is a prodrug (which doesn't have activity until its metabolized in the liver): Lisinopril or enalapril? enalapril.
What is the prodrug that when applied to the cornea gets converted to amfenac, a NSAID nepafenac
What is the definition for drugs that undergo metabolism via phase 1 reactions? drugs are oxidized/reduced to a more polar form
What is the definition for drugs that undergo metabolism via phase 2 reactions? A polar molecular group is conjugated to the drug, which increases its polarity.
What are the phase 1 oxidation reactions? (4) Dealkylation, oxidation, hydroxylation, polarizing atom exchange
What are the phase 1 reduction reactions? (2) Azo-reduction, nitro-reduction
What are the phase 2 reactions? (5) Glucuronide conjugation, ethereal sulfate conjugation, acetylation, transulfuration, glutathione conjugation
What is the term for the amount of drug required to produce 50% of the maximal response? This term is used to compare drugs in the same class. Drug potency
What is the term for the degree to which a drug is able to produce maximal effects(1 drug might need 10mg to reduce BP by 10 and drug 2 might need 100mg to produce the same amount. This term is used to compared drugs with different methods of action. drug efficacy
What is the pregnancy category where animal studies have not demonstrated fetal risk, and there have been no studies in women? B
What is the pregnancy category where there are adverse effects in animal studies, but no studies have occured in women, or no studies are available? C
What is the pregnancy category where human fetal risk exists, but it might be used if the mom is in a life-threatening situation. D
Phenylephrine should not be used within 21 days of what? MOA-inhibitor
If a patient uses methimazole, what are they being treated for? Hyper-thyroidism
If a patient uses methimazole what should you look for in the eye bleeding episodes
What is the drug of choice for hypo-thyroidism? levothyroxine
What are the ADEs of levothyroxine? chest pain, diarrhea, leg cramps, appetite change, tremor, headache, irritabiliy, insomnia, change in sensitivity to heat, fast/irregular heart rate.
What are the 4 fast acting insulins? Aspart, lispro, glulisine, regular
What are the 2 long activing insulins? Glargine, detemir
What are two drugs for type 2 diabeties that can cause changes in accomodation and blurred vision? glipizide, glimepiride
What is a drug for type 2 diabeties which works by improving insulin sensitivity and is used for pre-diabetics as well? metformin
What is a drug for diabeties that can cause macular edema and decreased visual acuity? Pioglitazone
What are the ADEs of pioglitazone? edema, weight gain, induce CHF, tooth disorders, headache, myalgia, sinusitis, anemia.
What are 2 drugs for asthma/COPD/emphysema which are B2 adrenergic receptor agonists? albuterol, pirbuterol
What is a drug for COPD that can cause blurred vision and should be used in caution with people with narrow angle glaucoma? tiotropium
corticosteroids such as prednisone cause what in the eye? blurred vision and an increase in IOP.
What are two drugs for asthma that can cause blurred vision and an increase in IOP and an increased risk of oral thrush? flunisolide, fluticasone
Which drug for asthma can cause strange headaches and should be cautioned in kids/teens because it can increase the risk for suicide? montelukast
What 4 bacteria have no cell wall? legionella, rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma
What is the lowest in-vitro concentration of an antibiotic that prevents/inhibits growth of bacteria? minimum inhibitory concentration
What causes blepharitis? Staph aureus, staph epidermis, seborrhea, dry eye, rosacea
What causes a hordeolum? Staph aureus
What causes bacterial conjunctivitis? Staph aureus, strep pneumoniae, hemophilus influenzae, N. gonorrheae, C. trachomatis
What causes bacterial keratitis? Staph aureus, staph epidermis, strep pneumoniae, listeria, group A strep, enterobacteriaceae
What causes viral conjunctivitis? Herpes simplex, adenovirus
what causes viral keratitis? Herpes simplex, varicella-zoster
How do penecillins inhibit bacteria? inhibit cell wall synthesis
What is dicloxacillin useful against? strep and staph
What is amoxicllin useful against? strep, staph, listeria, few gram negative rods and cocci
What is amoxicllin not useful against? pseudomonas
How do tetracyclines inhibit bacteria? inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30-s ribosome
What are tetracyclines useful against? some gram positive, listeria, some gram negative like meningitidis, ligionella,. Good for mycoplasm, chlamydia, rickettsia.
ODs should only prescribe tetracycline for what? chlamydial (trachoma) inclusion conjunctivitis
How do macrolides inhibit bacteria? inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 50-s ribosome
What are macrolides good at treating? mycoplasm, chlamydia, rickettsia, clostridia.
What do macrolides have some activity against? Group streps, pneumoniae, MSSA, listeria, meningitidis, catarrhalis, influenzae, legionella
What is azithromycin limitied to treating in california? eyelid infections and chlamydial disease
What are the ADEs of macrolides? hepatitis, jaundice, renal complications, GI, ototoxicity, allergic reactions
macrolides should not be given to a patient also taking what? blood thinners
What is clonidine used for? HT
What can clonidine cause in the eye? blurred vision, conjunctivitis, dry eye
What is doxazosin used for? HT
What is terazosin used for? HT
What is tamsulosin used for? HT
What three drugs can cause blurred vision and conjunctivitis in the eye but not dryness? terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin
What is a direct vasodilator used for HT? hydralazine
What are four beta blockers used for HT? carvedilol, sotalol, metoprolol, atenolol
What are the uses of beta blockers? HT, arrhythmias, angina, glaucoma, migranes, MI prevention, CHF maintenance
What is diltiazem used for? HT, angina, tachycardia
What is amlodipine used for? HT, angina, tachycardia
name 2 calcium channel blockers amlodinpine, diltiazem
What is lisinopril used for? HT, CHF MI
What is an ace-inhibitor that can cause blurry vision? lisinopril
What is losartan used for? HT
What is valsartan used for? HT
Name 2 ARBs that can cause conjunctivitis and blurred vision losartan, valsartan
Name 3 thiazide diuretics hydrochlorothiazide, metolazone, chlorthalidone
What is hydrochlorothiazide used for? edema, HT
What two types of diuretics can cause blurred vision? Loop and osmotic
What is furosemide for? Edema, HT
What is torsemide for? edema, HT
What two loop drugs can cause blurred vision? torsemide, furosemide
Name the 3 carbonic anhydrase inhibitors brinzolamide, acetazolamide, dorzolamide
What is acetazolamide for? edema, mountain sickness, HT
What is dorzolamide for? edema, mountain sickness, HT
What is brinzolamide for? edema, mountain sickness, HT
What type of classes are brinzolamide, acetazolamide, dorzolamide? carbonic anydrase inhibitors
What three drugs can cause transient myopia? brinzolamide, acetazolamide, dorzolamide
What can mannitol be used for? acute glaucoma, reduce intracranial pressure, diuresis, reduce renal toxicity in chemo drugs
In what type of patients should thiazide diuretics be cautioned? diabetics, gout, or hypercholesterolemia
What are the uses of warfarin? deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrilation, pulmonary embolism, heart valve replacement, ishemic or rheumatic heart disease
Warfarin effects are reversed by what? vitamin k
What are the uses of asprin or NSAIDs? reduces risk of AMI, stroke, TIAs. Also as an anti-inflammatory or analgesic.
How does aspirin/NSAIDs work? inhibit platelet aggregation.
What can happen in the eye sometimes with aspirin/NSAIDs? blurry vision or visual disturbances
List common NSAIDs (8) diclofenac, nepafenac, bromfenac, meloxicam, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, ketorolac, naproxen
What is cholestyramine for? hyperlipidemia
What is fenofibrate for? hyperlipidemia
What are 3 HMG-COA reductase inhibitors? atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin
What are HMG-COA reductase inhibitors for? hyperlipidemia
What are the ADEs of HMG-COA reductase inhibitors? myalgia, diarrhea, rhabdomyolysis, headache, rash, GI, dizziness
What is nitroglycerin for? Angina
What is isosorbide for? Angina
What is mononitrate for? angina
What is monoket for? angina
What are 2 generic types of drugs that work against angina? beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists
what is the drug of choice for acute angina? nitroglycerin
What can happen in the eye if you have a patient on nitroglycerin? blurred vision
What can happen in the eye if you have a patient on isosorbide, mononitrate, monoket? blurred vision
What is digoxin for? congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation/flutter/tachycardia
How does digoxin work? Inhibits NA/KATPas, increases CA influx, increases AV node sensitivity to vagal inhibition
What can happen in the eye if you have a patient on digoxin? blurred or yellow vision
What are the ADEs of digoxin? N/V dizziness, lethargy, bradycardia, tachycardia, mental changes, blurred or yellow vision
Is digoxins therapeutic window large or small? small
What are three types of drugs that are used for congestive heart failure? beta blockers, Ace-inhibitors, vasodilators
nitroglycerine, carvedilol and lisinopril are all key examples in the treatment of what? congestive heart failure
Beta 2 receptors are located where? vascular smooth muscle, bronchi, liver
domapinergic receptors are located where? renal and mesenteric vasculature
phenylephrine works on which adrenergic receptors? alpha
phenylephrine causes what type of pharmacologic effects? peripheral vasoconstriction
Propafenone is used for what? atrial arrhythmias
propafenone can cause what in the eye? Blurred vision
Which beta blocker is also really good at fixing tachycardia and atrial arrhythmias? metoprolol
what can amiodarone cause in the eye? corneal micordeposits in 90% of people and visual distrubances in less than 10% of people, and halos and optic neuritis can be reported.
What is amiodarone used for? atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias
What thing in optical would it be good to recommend for patients on amiodarone? UV sunglasses because iodine can cause photosensitivity and blue/gray skin pigmentation
What is sotalol used for? ventricular tachycardia and HT
Sotalol can cause what in the eye? visual problems in 5% of people
What is morphine used for? severe pain, anxiety of AMI, acute pulmonary edema
What are the side effects of oxycodone and hydrocodone? blurred vision, diplopia, miosis, nystagmus, depression, sedation, cardiac changes, dizziness, itchying, constipation, nausea, urinary retention
What type of pain is oxycodone used for? moderate to severe
What type of pain is hydrocodone used for? moderate
Why is codine different than morphine? Its a prodrug
What are the side effects of codine? depression, itching, dizziness, constipation, nausea, blurry vision, diplopia
What is fentanyl used for? preoperative/anesthetic agent
What are the ocular side effects of fentanyl? miosis, blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus
What is tramadol used for? moderate to severe chronic pain
How does tramadol work? binds to mu-opiate receptors in CNS to inhibit ascending pain pathways
What is a trade name for acetaminophen? tylenol
What is acetaminophen used for? reduces pain and fever.
How is acetaminophen cleared? Liver
What is the mechanism of action of acetaminophen? blocks pain impulse and inhibits hypothalamic heat-regulating center
Ibuprofen and naproxen can cause what ADEs? GI, blood dyscrasias, visual disturbances
What is ibuprofen and naproxen used for? arthritis, analgesia, antipyresis, inflammation, dysmenorrhea
What can happen in a patients eye that is on topical ketorolac? corneal thinnng and erosion
What are two common corticosteroids used for acute asthma and COPD? prednisone, methylprednisolone
If a patient is on celecoxib what can that cause in the eye? blurred vision, cataracts, conjunctival hemorrhage, conjunctivitis, pain, increased IOP, vitreous floaters
With all corticosteroids, what are the increased risks? (4) infection, cataracts, corneal/scleral performation, glaucoma
What is cyclobenzaprine used for? reduces somatic motor activity
What are skeletal muscle relaxants for? strains and sprain mostly along neck and spine or cerebral palsy
What are 4 skeletal muscle relaxants? Cyclobenzaprine, benzodiazepine, metaxalone, tizanidine
What is benzodiazepine used for? muscle relaxant and anticonvulsants
What are the ADEs of cyclobenzaprine? Blurred vision, drowsy, dizzy, GI
What is metaxalone used for? musculoskeletal pain
What is tizanidine used for? spasms related to MS or spinal cord injuries
What are the ADEs of tizanidine? blurred vision, GI, cardiac
What are 5 anticonvulsants? phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, benzodiazepine, topiramate
What is phenytoin used for? generalized seizures
what are the ocular side effects of phenytoin? nystagmus, diplopia, blurred vision
What is carbamazepine used for? epilepsy, trigeminal neuraligia, neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder
What are the ADEs of carbamazepine? blurred vision, diplopia, anemia, GI, hepatitis, hyponatremia
Should you always check for drug:drug interactions if someone is on an anticonvulsant? yes
What is valproic acid for? epilepsy, migranine, bipolar
What are the ADEs of valproic acid? liver failure, weight gain, pancreatitis, N/V, blood dyscrasias, amblyopia, blurred/spotty vision, nystagmus
What is benzodiazepine for? epilepticus, serizures, sedation, muscle relaxat
What is topiramate for? partial or generalized seizures, migraine
What are the ocular side effects of topiramate? diplopia, conjunctivitis, myopia
What are two drugs for parkinsons? pramipexole, ropinirole
Can abnormal vision occur in people taking parkinsons drugs such as pramipexole or ropinirole? Yes
When should pramipexole or ropinirole be used? after sinemet/carbidopa no longer works
What are the ocular side effects of levodopa/carbidopa/sinemet? blepharospasm and oculogyric crisis (eye rotate)
What are the ADEs of ropinirole? abnormal vision, xerophthalmia .(eyes can't produce tears), hypotension
What are H2 receptor antagonists used for? peptic ulcer disease, GERD, duodenal and gastric ulcers.
What are the H2 receptor ADEs? headache, diarrhea, rash, blood dyscrasias
Ranitidine is used for what? H2 receptor antagnoist
Famotidine is used for what? H2 receptor antagnoist
Epoetin is used for what? anemia of chronic renal failure,reduction of blood transfusion in surgical patients
What are the ocular ADEs of phenothiazines blurred vision, corneal and lenticular changes, epithelial keratopahty, pigmentary retinopathy
What are the 5 phenothiazines? chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine
What are chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine used for? psychotic disorders
What is olanzapine used for? bipolar mania, schizophrenia
What are the ocular ADEs of olanzapine? amblyopia, conjunctivitis, glaucoma, eye hemorrhage
What is quetiapine used for? schizophrenia, acute bipiloar mania and depression
What are the ocular ADEs of quetiapine blurred vision and amblyopia
sertraline (zoloft) is what type of affective disorder medication? Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
What are the ocular ADEs of sertraline (zoloft)? vision abnormalities, cataracts, blindness, oculogyric crisis, optic neuritis
What is venlafaxine (effexor) used for? affect disorders
venlafaxine is what type fo affective disorder medication? serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
what are the ocular ADEs of venlafaxine? blurred vision, cataracts, mydriasis, eye hemorrhage
What is bupropion (wellbutrin) used for? depression or smoking cessation
What are the ocular ADEs of bupropion? blurry vision, diplopia, dry eye
What is alprazolam used for? anxiety
What is the ocular side effect of alprazolam? diplopia
What is dextroamphetan used for? ADD, narcolepsy
What are the ADEs of dextroamphetan? mydriasis, tachycardia, irritability, tolerance, seizures
Name the four H2 receptor antagonists for gastrointestinal problems cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine, famotidine
Whats the root word for gastrointestinal/H2 receptor antagonist drugs? tidine
What are the ocular ADEs of H2 receptor antagonists? blurred vision, optic neuritis, ocular irriation
Proton pump inhibitors are used to treat what? GERD, ulcers
Four proton pump inhibitor drugs for GERD/ulcers are what? omeprazole, lanoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole
Omeprazole is for what? GERD, ulcers
lanoprazole is for what? GERD, ulcers
esomeprazole is for what? GERD, ulcers
pantoprazole is for what? GERD, ulcers
what is the root word for proton pump inhibitors that work for GERD/ulcers? prazole
Which proton pump inhibitor doesn't interact with ampicillin? pantoprazole
What is omeprazoles ocular ADEs? blurry, optic neuritis, ocular irritation, optic atrophy, dry eyes
What is lanoprazoles ocular ADEs? photophobia, dry eye, visual field defect
What are esomeprazoles ocular ADEs? blurry, conjunctivitis
What are pantoprazoles ocular ADEs? blurry, decreased vision, optic neuropathy, conjunctivitis
mesalamine is used for what? inflammatory bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, crohns disease
What are mesalamines ocular ADEs? conjunctivitis, eye pain and vision abnormalities
Created by: sbixby