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Psych 509

Unit 1 Book Notes and terms

abnormal behavior synonyms psychopathology, maladgjustment, emotinoal disturbance, mental illness
psychological abnormality the scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning
culture a people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology and arts
clinical scientists Workers in this field are called “clinical scientists” who gather information systematically so that they may describe, predict and explain the phenomena they study. The knowledge they acquire is used by “clinical practitioners” to detect, assess and trea
4 Ds of abnormal functioning deviance, distress (upsetting to patient), dysfunctional (daily activity interference), dangerous
deviant: concept, issues abnormal behavior thoughts emotions that differ markedly from society's norms Issue: some reactions warranted, like anxiety from hurricane katrina
distress according to clinical theorists, behavior, ideas emotions that cause distress to person issue: some feel refreshed by actions like suomi
dysfunction interferes with ability to function daily in constructive way, issue: some behavior just unusual and doesnt affect rest of life
danger research shows is really exception rather than rule
thomas szasz clinical theorist: such emphasis on society's role that mental illness is a myth- invent concept. Also eccentrics
treatment procedure to help change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
jerome frank clinical theorist: all forms of therapy share 3 features: sufferer who seeks relief, healer whose expertise is accepted, series of contacts b/w 2
Percent of adults displaying serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment in US 30 kessler 2009
percnet children w/ serious psych disturbances and need clinical treatment in US 19% kessler 2009
in vivo exposure actual exposure
etiology? causes of disorder
earliest view of abnormal behavior behavior as work of evil spirits
mass madness large #s of people shared false beliefs and imagined sights or sounds: tarantism, lycanthropy (wolf)
johann weyer first physician to specialize in mental illness, mind as susceptible as body to sickness 1500s
gheel in belgium religious shrine devoted to humane and loving treatment of people w/mental disorders, place of psychic healing. First community mentalhealth program (opposite: bethlehem in england = belam)
moral treatment in history french revolution- philippe pinelat La Bicetre asylum, treated with sympathy and kindness us- benjamin rush w/ practice limited to mental illness, dorthea dix
somatogenic perspective** abnormal psychological funcitoning has physical causes
psychogenic perspective view that chief causes of ab func are psychological
reasons for return of somatogenic perspective 1. emil kraepalin's book: physical factors like fatigue cause mental dysfunction 2. new biological discoveries like syphilis causing general paresis (Richard Krafft-Ebing)
physical treatments for ab func tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, lobotomy,
psychogenic perspective treatments hypnosis, Frederich Mesmer for hysterical disorders, work studied by freud and co.
freud's theory of psychoanalysis unconscious psych processesare at the root of ab functioning
technique of psychoanlysis discssion in whcih clinicians help troubled people gaininsightinto their unconscious psych processes in order to help overcome abfunc
percent of survey takers that believe people bring mental disorders upon themselves 43%
% ppl believe mental disorders caused by sinful behavior 35%
psychotropic drugs drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysf
3 main types of psychotropic drugs anti-psychotics (correct extremely confused and distorted thinking); antidepressants; antianxiety drugs
deinstitutionalization hundreds of ks of patients released from mental hospitals, 1950: ~520,000, peak in 1955 close to 600,000, now 60,000 (usually short term hospitalization)
% of ppl with severe psych disturbances that receive treatment of any kind 40% (100k homeless on any given day, 135,000 in prison)
change in treatment style before 1950: private psychotherapy (directly paid) after: health insurance expansion
# of people who receive treatment for psych disorders in the course of a year 1/5 (wang 2007), majority less than 5 sessions during year
% who enter treatment for b/c of living problems at least 20% (marital, job, peer, school) Druss 2007
positive psych study and encouragement of positive feelings suchas optimism and happiness, hard work, generosity and tolerance in order to help people in clinical arena.
managed care program insurance company determines key issues like therapist options, cost and number of sessions for reimbursement
% of people covered by managed care programs 75%
parity laws passed by federal gov and 35 states saying insurance cos have to cover equal medical and mental health (2007)
% of employers offering stress reduction programs 20%
clinical researchers try to determine which concepts best explain and predict abnormal behavior, most effective treatment, and necessary changes
nomothetic general understanding of nature, causes and treatments of abnormality as done by clinical researchers
scientific method use of collecting and evaluating information thru careful observations (explain relationships b/w variables)
clinical researchers 3 main types of investigation 1. case study (focus on individual) 2. correlational method 3. experimental method. Used to test hypotheses
why case studies helpful source of new ideas, opens way for discoveries, tentative support for a theory or challenge theory's assumptions; value of new therapeutic techniques.
limits of case studies biased observers, subjective evidence, little basis for generalization
correlational and experimental methods draw broad conclusions, 3 main features: 1. many individuals 2. procedures uniformly applied so replicable 3. statistical tests for results. Doesnt EXPLAIN, just describe relationship
correlation degree to which events vary with each other
correlational method research procedure for determining co-relationship between variables
positive correlation +1.00 when both increase in same direction a+ and b+
negative correlation when variables go opposite directions. i.e. a+and b- (also can be unrelated)
correlation coefficient +1 to -1 strongest. +.75= stronger than -.25
experimental method provides causal information (not correlational or case study)
prevalence vs incidence total number of cases in population during given time period (includes new and existing cases). INcidence is # of NEW cases that emerge during time
longitudinal study vs. epidemiological study longitudinal covers same people over long period of time
experiment must involve variable that's manipulated and manipulations effect observed, manipulated: independent variable, variable observed: dependent variable. IMportant b/c gives causal information
confounds other variables that affect dependent variable, protected against thru 3 main features of studies: control group, random assignment and blind design
experimenter bias also called... the rosenthal effect because noted untnentional transmissions from experimenter biases i.e. smile and confidence with real thing, not with placebo = need for double blind
quasi experiment/mixed designs (also kind of includes natural experiments) no random assigment, use groups that already exist (child abuse cases)
matched control participants in quasi/mixed design, try to match each experimental participant with a control participant of similar age, sex, generd race, SES, etc
analogue experiments lab participants behave in ways that resemble real life abnormal behavior and then conduct experiments
single subject design observe before and after manipulation of variable (ABAB example)
Created by: lwstewart