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Ch. 11 Endocrine Sys

endocrine system

Exocrine glands secrete through a series of ducts
Endocrine glands are ductless, releasing directly into bloodstream
endocrine works with nervous system
The endocrine communicates slowly thru use of hormones
when a hormone reaches it target a metabolic change occurs
all endocrine glands weigh less than half a pound
the endocrine glands have an effect patient metabolism,growth,development,reproduction
hormone release is controlled by negative feedback
negative feedback a decrease in functionin responseto stimuli
pituitary glnad is called hypophysis
the pituitary gland pea-sized,""master gland",works with negative feedback to exert control over other endocrine glands
pituitary gland is divided into two segments: anterior and posterior
Anterior pituitary gland aka adenohypophysis the first segment of the pituitary gland
Posterior Pituitary gland aka neurohypophysis the second segment of the pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland secretes six major hormones which constitue about 75% of the total weight of the pit. gland
Tropic hormones 5 of the hormones released by the anterior pit gland; called this b/c responsible for stimulation of other endocrine glands
Prolactin (hormone) remaining hormone produced by the anterior pit gland; causes mammary glands to produce milk
Posterior Pituitary Gland releases two hormones called oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin promotes the release of milk and stimulates uterine contractions during labor
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) causes the kidneys to conserve water by decreasing the amount of urine produced; also constricts arterioles resulting in increased BP
ADH also referred to as vasopressin because of its effect on the blood pressure
Thyroid gland is what shape? butterfly-shaped
Thyroid gland is located where? with one lobe lying on either side of the trachea just below the larynx
Isthmus connects the lobes of the thyroid gland
Thyroid gland is very vascular and receives 80 -120 mL of blood per min
Thyroid secretes what two main hormones? Thryroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodithyronine (T3) regulate what 3 main functions? growth and development, metabolism, and activity of the nervous system
Calcitonin hormone released by the thyroid gland that decreases blood calcium levels by causing the calcium to be stored in the bones
Parathroid Glands located where? on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (aka parathormone)
Parathormone is an antogonist to calcitonin b/c it tends to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood
Parathormone regulates the amount of phosphorus in the blood as well as increases the concentration of calcium in the blood
When calcium blood levels are low the nerve cells become excited and stimulate the muscles with too many impulses, resulting in spasms (tetany)
When blood calcium levels are abnormally high, heart function becomes impaired and can result in death
Under influence of the parathormone two changes occur in the kidneys increases the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium from the kidney tubules; and accelerates the elimination of phosphorus in the urine
adrenal glands aka suprarenal glands; small yellow masses that lie atop the kidneys
Both adrenal glands contain an outer section (adrenal cortex) and a smaller inner section (adrenal medulla)
adrenal cortex is divided into three separate layers and each layer secretes a particular hormone called steroids
mineralocorticoids primarily involved in water and electrolyte balance and indirectly manage blood pressure
Aldosterone the principal mineralocorticoid, regulates sodium and potassium levels by exterting its effects on the kidney tubules; decreases pot and increases sodium in blood stream
Glucocorticoids most important of these is cortisol which is involved in glucose metabolism and provides extra reserve energy in times of stress; exhibits antiinflammatory properties
Sex Hormones androgens are male hormones and estrogens are female hormones
Adrenal cortex releases these three steroids mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and Sex hormones
Adrenal Medulla release two hormones during times of stress epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine which cause the heart rate and BP to increase, the blood vessels constrict, and the liver to release glucose reserves for immediate energy; fight or flight response
pancreas is located where? elongated gland that lies posterior to the stomach
Pancreas is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissue
Islets of Langerhans more than 1 million tiny clusters of cells of the endocrine tissue of the pancreas known collectively as this
Islets of Langerhans secrete two major hormones, insulin and glucagon
insulin hormone secreted in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood secreted by beta cells
glucagon hormone secreted in response to decreased levels of glucose in the blood secreted by alpha cells
Insulin and glucagon play a major role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism
Ovaries major sex glands of the woman
Ovaries are located where? two almond shaped ovaries are located deep in the lower abdominal region lying to the left and right of the uterus
Ovaries begin production of hormones when? puberty
Ovaries release two hormones estrogen and progesterone
estrogen repsonsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics usch as axillary hair, pubic hair, and maturation of the reproductive organs
progesterone maintains the preparation of the reproductive organs that was initiated by the estrogen
placenta temporary endocrine gland that forms and functions during pregnancy; ovaries become inactive and placenta controls estrogen and progesterone needed to maintain the pregnancy
Male sex glands testes located in the scrotum
scrotum saclike structure that hold the testes, male sex glands
testes release what hormone? testosterone
testosterone is responsible for development of male secondary sex characteristics such as axillary, pubic, and facial hair; maturation of the reproductive organs, deepening of voice, and development of muscle and bone mass
testosterone is necessary for sperm formation
thymus gland is located where? lies in the upper thorax, posterior to the sternum
thymus gland produces the hormone called thymosin which plays an active role in the immune system
T Lymphocytes a type of white blood cell that are stimulated to carry out immune reactions to certain types of antigens
pineal gland is located where? small cone-shaped gland located on the roof of the third venticle of the brain
pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin which seems to inhibit reproductive activities by inhibiting the gonadotropic hormones; important to prevent sexual maturity in children until adulthood
melatonin is thought to induce sleep, may affect mood, and has an impact on menstrual cycles
Created by: Jaybob