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Anatomy &P Endocrine

Endocrine System

How is homeostasis preserved? Through intercellular communication
What does the endocrine system do? Involve or affect metabolic ACTIVITIES in virtually every cell & tissue. Regulates long term processes.
How does Direct communication occur? Occurs between cells of the same type & cells must be in extensive physical contact.
What does direct communication do among epithelial cells? Coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells.
Direct communication coordinates.... Contractions of cardiac muscle cells
Direct communication facilitates ...? The propagation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses.
True or False? Direct communication is highly specialized and relatively rare? TRUE TRUE TRUE
Neurons do what? Monitor or control specific cells or groups of cells.
What do Hormones effect? Tissue of origin as well as distant cells
Substances withe ffects OUTSIDE its tissue of origin and that structure HASNT been determined is called... FACTOR
What does Endocrine communication do? Activity of hormones in coordinating cellular activities in tissues in DISTANT portions of the body.
How does a hormone turn an existing enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off" By changing its shape or structure.
How can Hormones effect us? Modify the physical structure or biochemical properties of its target cells.
True or False? The effects of Hormones may be slow to appear? True
How can hormones effect a person's appearance? Can produce complex changes in the body's physical structures.
What two systems work together to maintain homeostasis? Nervous System & Endocrine System.
True or False? Synaptic communications have LONG lived effects? FALSE- they are short lived effects
What is Synaptic communication ideal for? Crisis management.
What is the major functions of the endocrine system? Regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to receptors.
Panacrine Communication works.... By the use of chemical messengers to transfer info from cell to cell within a single tissue.
True or False Panacrine Communication involves coordination of a tissue function at the local level? True
Yes or No? During Synaptic communication things return to normal soon after the crisis is over? Yes
What do Synaptic communication tend to be restricted to? Specific target cells.
True or False In Neurons the number of cells innervated is small? True
True or False The Neurons are very specific and send relatively brief commands? True
Synaptic communications is when... Neurons release neurotransmitter at a synapse close to target cells bearing appropriate receptors.
Can Hormones alter metabolic activities of multiple tissues & organs simultaneously? Yes
Can Hormones coordinate cell, tissue & organ activities on a sustained, long term basis? Yes
Can hormones effect Physiological capabililties? Yes
How do Hormones increase or decrease the rate of a particular enzyme or other protein? By changing the rate of transcription or translation.
How do hormones stimulate the synthesis of an enzyme or a structural protein that is not already present in the cytoplasm? By activating the appropriate genes in the cell nucleus.
The chemicals involved in Panacrine Communication are.. "Panacrine factors" or "Local hormones"
In direct communication how are cellular activites coordinated? By the exchange of ions & molecules between adjacent cells across gap junctions.
In direct communication how does cells funcation? Cells funcation as a physical entity
Examples of panacrine communication is... Prostaglandins & various growth factors.
Substance with effect OUTSIDE its tissue of origin and its chemical structure is known...is called? HORMONE
Definition of Target Cell? Specific cells that possess receptors needed to bind and "read" the arriving hormonal message.
Prostaglandins have primary effect in WHAT? In tissues of origin.
Prostaglandins have Secondary effects in WHAT? Tissues and organs (act like a hormone)
Definition of Hormone Chemical messengers that are released in one tissue & transported in the bloodstream to alter the activites of specific in other tissues.
How are hormones produced? Produced by specialized cells.
What is the composition of the hormonal system? All the endocrine cells & tissues of the body that produces hormones or panacrine factors with effects beyond their tissues of orgin.
Where does the Endocrine cell secrets into? Extracellular fluid
Where Exocrine cells secrete products? Onto epithelial surfaces by way of ducts
What are the 3 classes of Hormones? steroids peptides amines
What is another name for Amino Acid Derivatives? Biogenic Amines.
True or False? Amino Acid Derivatives are Large? False. Amino Acids derivatives are relatively small.
*Amino Acids Derivatives are synthesized from what? Tyrosine.
*Hormones that are synthesized from the Amino Acid Tyrosine are? Thyroid hormones, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine.
*What is another name for Dopamine? Catecholamines
*Melatonin is synthesized from where? Tryptophan.
What are peptide hormones? Chains of amino acids.
Peptide hormones are generally synthesized how? As a Prohormones(inactive) then converted to active.
True or False? Peptide hormones are large and diverse. range from short polypeptide chains(ADH and Oxytocin) to small proteins (growth hormone, prolactin) True
Glycoproteins More than 200 amino acids long with CHO side chains. Include TSH, LH, FSH & others
Peptide hormones includes all hormones secreted by...... Hypothalamus, Heart, Thymus, Digestive tract, Pancrease, and Anterior/Posterior Pituitary
Eicosanoids are derived from Arachidonic Acid
*What do Eicosanoids look like? Small molecules with a 5 C ring at one end.
*What are important panacrine factors? Primary role-Coordinate cellular activites-Example: Blood Clotting. Secondary role-Act as hormones
*How are Leukotrines released? They are released by activated WBC/Leukocytes.
*Leukotrines coordinate what? Injury Response.
*Prostaglandins is produced by what? Most of the tissue in the body.
*What does Prostaglandins do? Coordinates local cell activities.
*Thromboxanes & Prostacyclins come from what? Converted prostaglandins
Thromboxanes & Prostacyclins have stong______ Effect? Panacrine
Cholesterol derives _______Hormones? Steroid Hormones
Individual hormones differ by _____ ______ attached to the _____ ______ Structure. Side Groups. Basic Ring Structure
Lipids are structurally similar to______ Cholesterol.
Androgens (male) are released by_______ Testes.
_____ and ______ are released by the ovaries. Estrogens Progestins
Corticosteroids are secreted by the ______ ________ Adrenal Cortex.
Calcitrol is secreted by the _________. Kidneys
*In blood steriod hormones the hormones that are bound to specific transport hormones stay in circulation Shorter than peptide hormones? FALSE- sat in circulation LONGER than peptide hormones.
*In blood steroid hormones the specific transport hormones eventually get absorbed by the ______ & are gradually converted to a ____ soluble form for excretion by the _____. absorbed by the LIVER converted into a WATER soluble form Excreted by the KIDNEYS
Hormone release typical occurs where _________ are numerous. Capillaries
Hormones may circulate freely in ______ or be bound to special carrier proteins Blood
Secretion & distribution of hormones are functional usually for ____ than ___ hour or as ____ as ____ minutes LESS that ONE hour or as LITTLE as TWO minutes.
When does inactivation occur? When hormones diffuses out of the bloodstream & bind to receptors on target cells.
Hormones are absorbed by the _____ or the ______. Liver, Kidneys
Hormones are broken down by _____ in the _______ or ______ fluids. Enzymes in Plasma or Interstitial Fluids
Hormone receptors determine the cell's ______ to certain hormones. Sensitivity
Hormone Action interacts with appropriate _____ Receptors.
Receptors for ____, _____, & ______ are in plasma Membrane. Catecholamines peptide hormones eicosanoids
True or false? Catecholamines and peptide hormes are NOT lipid soluble, so they bind to outer surface. True
Eicosanoids are lipid soluble and bind to ______ surfaces. Inner
True or false? First messengers are intracellular intermediary that exerts effects that lead to the apperance of the 2nd messenger? True
Senond Messengers may act as an Enzyme ____,____, or ____. Activator, inhibitor, cofactor.
Second messengers net result is a change in ______ reactions. Metabolic
*Some 2nd Messengers are: Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) Cyclic-GMP (cGMP) Calcium Ions
Amplification is the process of _______ an effect of a _____ on a target cell process of MAGNIFYING an effect of a HORMONE
What is linked between the 1st and Second Messenger? G Protein
A G Protein is an ____ complex that is ____ to a membrane _____ Enzyme complex, that is Coupled to a membrane RECEPTOR
The G Protein is activated when a hormone____ to its ____ membrane surface. when a hormone BINDS to its RECEPTOR membrane surface.
Activated G proteins can trigger the opening of _____ ______ Channels in the membrane. Calcium Ion Chanels
Activated G proteins can trigger the release of calcium ions from ______ stores. Intracellular stores.
Steroid hormones ___ across the lipid part of the membrane. diffuse
Steroid hormones____ to receptors in the ____ or ____ BIND to receptor in the CYTOPLASM, or NUCLEUS
Steroid hormones _____ or ________ specific genes. Activate or deactivate
True or False? Endocrine reflexes are functional counter parts of neural reflexes. True
Triggers for endocrine reflexes are: Humoral stimuli Hormonal stimuli Neural stimuli
Triggers for endocrine reflexes are controlled by _______feedback negative
Humoral stimuli is changes in composition of ____ fluids. Hormonal stimuli is the arrival or removal of a _____ _____. Neural stimuli is the arrival of ______ at ______ junctions. Extracellular fluids. Specific Hormones Neurotransmitters at Neuroglandular junctions
Examples of simple endocrine reflexes: secretion of hormones by the _____, _____, ______ _____, & ____ _____. Heart, Pancreas, Parathyroid glands, and Digestive tract.
Difference between Simple and Complex endocrine reflexes. Simple-involve only one hormone. Complex- involve one or more intermediary steps & 2 or more hormones.
The _____ provides the highest level of endocrine control? Hypothalmus
Regulatory hormes are special hormones that control endocrine cells in the _____. Pituitary.
Hypothalamic neurons _____ hormones. Then___ them along axons within the infundibulum and ____ them into circulation at the neurohhpophysis. synthesize hormones, transports them, and releases
Regulatory hormones control ______ activities of the endocrine cells int he ____ which then controls activies of the endocrine cells in the __ ,___ ___ & ___ ___ Secretory activities anterior pituitary Thyroid, adrenal cortex and reproductive organs.
Hormones in Hypothalmic and pituitary are released in bursts called Pulses
*Hypophyseal portal system: facilitate absorption on the secretions into the blood stream by _____ _______ Fenestrated capillaries- allow relatively large molecules to enter or leave the capillaries.
*Portal vessels are vessels linking 2 capillary networks. This complex is called a _____ system. Portal System.
the anterior pituitary subdivisions: Pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia.
Difference in Releasing and Inhibiting hormones Releasing stimulate the synthesis and secretion of hormones in Anterior pituitary gland. Inhibiting prevents it.
Pituitary (Hypophysis) gland hangs _____ to the ____ connected by the slender funnel shaped Infundibulum. Inferior to the hypothalamus.
Created by: katie.nelson8