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Emergency MR

McGraw-Hill Emergency Medical Responder 2nd Edition CH 6

QuestionAnswer
Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. True
The spleen is the largest internal organ of the body. False
The chambers of the heart that have the thickest walls are the ventricles. True
The salivary glands release chemicals (enzymes) that begin the breakdown of food and also moisten and lubricate food so that it can be swallowed. True
Oropharynx Opens into the mouth and serves as a passageway for both food and air.
What are the bones of the forearm? Radius and ulna
The lower chambers of the heart are called the atria. False
The walls of the heart are made up of skeletal muscle. False
The upper chambers of the heart are called the ventricles. False
The heart contains four valves that make sure blood flows in the proper direction. True
White blood cells are also called erytrocytes. False
White blood cells help the body fight infection. True
White blood cells are irregularly shaped blood cells that have a sticky surface. False
White blood cells gather at the site of an injured blood vessel and stop the flow of blood. False
What artery is found in the upper extremity? Brachial artery
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood occurs where? The alveoli
Name the parts of the upper airway. Nose, pharynx, larynx
The thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx. True
The thyroid cartilage can be felt on the posterior surface of the neck. False
The thyroid cartilage is the only complete ring of cartilage in the larynx. False
The thyroid cartilage forms the base of the larynx on which the other cartilages rest. False
The meninges are three layers of connective tissue coverings that surround the brain and spinal fluid. True
What is the largest organ system in the human body? Integumentary system
Thoracic cavity Located below the neck and above the diaphragm; contains the heart, major blood vessels, and lungs
Abdominal cavity Located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis
Body cavity A hollow space in the body that contains internal organs
Pleural cavities Surrounds the lungs
Spinal cavity Extends from the bottom of the skull to the lower back; contains the spinal cord
Cranial cavity Located in the head; contains the brain
Pericardial cavity Surrounds the heart
Pulse The regular expansion and recoil of an artery caused the movement of blood from the heart as it contracts
Appendicular skeleton Upper and lower extremities (arms and legs), shoulder girdle, and pelvic girdle
Homeostatis "Steady state"
Tissue Cells that cluster together to perform a specialized function
Aorta The largest artery in the body
Physiology The study of the normal functions of an organism
Cerebellum The second-largest part of the human brain
Systolic blood pressure The pressure in an artery when the heart is pumping blood
Cells The basic building blocks of the body
Xiphoid process The inferior portion of the breastbone
Perfusion The flow of blood through an organ or a part of the body
Corpus callosum A thick bundle of nerve fibers that joins the two hemispheres of the brain
List the formed elements of the blood Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
List the parts of the central nervous system Brain and spinal cord
Explain the purpose of tendons and ligaments Tendons are strong cords of connective tissue that firmly attach the end of a muscle to a bone. Ligaments are tough groups of connective tissue that attach bones to bones and bones to cartilages
What is hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that chemically bonds with oxygen
List four effects of stimulation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system Heart rate increases, pupils widen, disgestion decreases and the heart's force of contraction increases
What is a pulse, and where can a pulse be felt? A pulse is the regular expansion and recoil of an artery caused by the movement of blood from the heart as it contracts. A pulse can be found anywhere an artery passes near the skin surface and over a bone
Anatomy The study of the structure of an organism.
Physiology The study of the normal functions of an organism, such as the human body.
Cells The basic building blocks of the body.
Tissues Cells that cluster together to perform a specialized function.
Organ Made up of at least two different types of tissue that work together to perform a particular function.
Vital organs tissues and organs that work together to provide a common function.
The human body consists of 10 major organ systems Skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, integumentary, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, urinary
Homeostasis The ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment.
Body cavity A hollow space in the body that contains internal organs.
Cranial cavity Located in the head; contains the brain and is protected by the skull.
Spinal cavity Extends from the bototm of the skull to the lower back; contains the spinal cord and is protected by the vertebral (spinal) column.
Central nervous system The brain and spinal cord. Allows the body to carry electrical signals from the body's organ sysems to the brain and spinal cord as well as the various organ systems of the body.
Thoracic (chest) cavity Located below the neck and above the diaphragm and is protected by the rib cage. Contains the heart, major blood vessels and lungs.
Pericardial cavity The area surrounding the heart
Pleural cavities The area surrounding the lungs
Abdominal cavity Located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis; contains the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.
Peritoneal cavity A potential space between two membranes that line the abdominal cavity, separating the abdominal organs from the abdominal wall.
Pelvic cavity The area bellow the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the reproductive organs.
Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Contains the liver, the gallbladder, portions of the stomach and the major blood vessels.
Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Contains the stomach, spleen, and pancreas.
Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Contains the appendix.
Left lower quadrant (LLQ) Contains the intestines.
Axial skeleton Part of the skeleton that includes the skull, spinal column, sternum, and ribs.
Appendicular skeleton Made up of the upper and lower extremities (arms and legs), the shoulder girdle, and the pelvic girdle.
Shoulder girdle The bony arch formed by the collarbones (clavicles) and shoulder blades (scapulae).
Pelvic girdle Made up of bones that enclose and protect the organs of the pelvic cavity. It provides a point of attachment for the lower extremities and the major muscles of the trunk. It also supports the weight of the upper body.
Bones are classified by - Their shape and size.
Bones are categorized as - long, short, flat, and irregular.
Skull The bony skeleton of the head that protects the brain from injury and gives the head its shape.
Cranium One of two main groups of bones in the head. It contains eight bones that house and protect the brain.
Eight bones of the cranium Front, two parietal (top sides of cranium) bones, two temporal (lower sides of cranium) bones, occipital (back of skull) bone, sphenoid (central part of floor of cranium) bone, ethmoid (floor of cranium, nasal septum) bone
Facial bones Orbits (eye sockets), nasal bones (upper bridge of nose), maxilla (upper jaw), mandible (lower jaw), zygomatic bones (cheekbones)
Spine (vertebral column) Made up of 32 to 33 vertebrae that are arranged in regions.
Cervical spine Holds the head up and allows it to rotate left and right as well as move backward. (7 vertebrae)
Chest (thorax) Made up of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs, and the breastbone, or sternum.
True ribs Pairs 1 through 7. Attached to the front of the sternum by cartilage.
False ribs Rib pairs 8 through 10. Attached to the cartilage of the seventh ribs.
Floating ribs Rib pairs 11 and 12. Not attached to the sternum.
Sternum (breastbone) Consists of three sections. The manubrium, xiphoid process and the body.
Manubrium The uppermost (superior) portion of the sternum. Connects with the clavicle and first rib.
Xiphoid process The inferior portion of the sternum.
Upper extremities Made p of the bones of the shoulder girdle, the arms, the forearms, and the hands.
Humerus The upper arm bone to which the biceps and triceps muscles are attached, allowing the shoulder to rotate, flex, and extend. The largest bone in the upper extremity and the second-largest bone in the body.
Forearm Consists of the radius (lateral, thumb side) and the ulna (medial side). Connected to the carpals and the phlanges.
Lower extremities Made up of the bones of the pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, and feet. The bones of the lower extremities are thicker, heavier and longer than the upper extremity bones.
Pelvis A bony ring formed by three separate bones that fuse to become one by adulthood.
Acetabulum Hip bone
Femur Thigh bone. The longest, heaviest and strongest bone of the body.
Greater trochanter The large, bony prominence on the lateral shaft of the femur to which the buttock muscles are attached.
Patella Kneecap
Tibia Shinbone. The larger of the two bones of the lower leg.
Fibula The smaller of the two bones of the lower leg.
Tarsal The bones that make up the back part of the foot at heel.
Metatarsal The bones that make up the main part of the foot.
Phalanges Fingers and toes.
Muscular system Gives the body shape, protects the internal organs, provides for movement of the body, maintains posture, helps stabilize joints and produces body heat.
How are muscles classified? According to their structure and function: skeletal (voluntary) muscle, smooth (involuntary) muscle, and cardiac muscle.
Skeletal muscles Move the skeleton, produce the heat that helps maintain a constant body temperature, and maintain posture. Voluntary because you can determine how they move.
Tendons Strong cords of connective tissue that firmly attach the end of a muscle to a bone.
Ligaments Tough groups of connective tissue that attach bones to bones and bones to cartilage. Provide support and strength to joints and restrain excessive joint movement.
Muscle tone A state of partial contraction. This state of constant tension keeps your head in an upright position, your back straight, and the muscles of your body prepared for action.
Smooth (involuntary) muscle Found within the walls of tubular structures of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary systems, blood vessels, the eye, and the bronchi of the respiratory system. Is involuntary because you cannot control its movement. Contractions are strong and slow.
What controls the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle? Controlled by the body's needs.
Cardiac muscle Found in the walls of the heart. Produces the heart's contractions and pumps blood. Found only in the heart and has its own supply of blood through the coronary arteries. Normal cardiac muscle contractions are strong and rhythmic. Is involuntary.
The air we breathe is a combination of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and a small amount of other gases, including carbon dioxide.
The respiratory system consists of the nose, the pharynx (throat), and the larynx (voice box).
The lower airway consists of parts found almost entirely within the chest cavity; such as the trachea (windpipe) and the lungs.
Nostrils External nares
Hard palate The floor of the nasal cavity; is bony.
Soft palate Is fleshy and extends behind the hard palate. It marks the boundary between the nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx.
Sinuses Spaces or cavities inside some cranial bones that drain into the nose. There are four.
Turbinates Shelflike projections that protrude into the nasal cavity.
Nasopharynx Located directly behind the nasal cavity. Serves as a passageway for air only.
Oropharynx The middle part of the throat. Opens into the mouth and serves as a passageway for both food and air.
Laryngopharynx The lowermost part of the throat. It surrounds the openings of the esophagus and larynx. Opens in the front into the larynx and in the back into the esophagus. Serves as a passageway for both food and air.
Thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple) Is the largest cartilage of the larynx and is shaped like a shield.
Epiglottis The uppermost cartilage and is shaped like a leaf. Covers the trachea when you are eating or drinking so that food or liquids do not enter the lungs.
Cricoid cartilage The lowermost cartilage of the larynx. Is the only complete ring of cartilage in the larynx. Forms the base of the larynx on which the other cartilages rest.
Glottis The space between the vocal cords.
Esophagus A muscular tube located behind the traches. Part of the digestive system. Serves as a passageway for food.
Bronchus The tubes that fo from the trachea to the lungs. Right primary and left primary. Right bronchus is shorter, wider and straighter than the left.
Created by: AAllegretto