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Nutrition Ch. 8

Vitamins ATI Pg. 5

Vitamins occur in foods in? much smaller qualities
Vitamins serve as facilitators? of bodies processess
What do Vit. A deficiency cause? blindness
What can a lack of ciacin cause? dementia
What can lack of Vit. D cause? retard bone growth
People spend billions on dietary supplements to cure? many different ailments
Vitamins are? potent, essential, nonkcaloric, organic nutrients needed from foods in trace amounts to perform specific functions
Vitamins do not yeild? energy when broken down, but assist enzymes that release energy
The amounts of vitamins people ingest are measured in? micrograms, and milligrams
Vitmans are essential to? life, organic and in food
What are fat soluble vitamins? Vit. A D E K
What are water soluble vitamins? Vit. B, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid....
What does the amount of vitamins from food depend on? the quantity provided by a food and the amount absorbed and used by the body (bioavailability)
What does a vitamins bioabailability depend on? efficiency of digestion, person's previous nutrient intake, other foods eaten at the same time, method of preparation, source of the nutrient
Inactive forms of vitamins are? precursors or provitamins
Once in the body what is a precursor converted to? to the active form of the vitamin
Being organic vitamins can be? destroyed and left unable to function
Oxygen destroys Vit? C
Sun light destroys? riboflavin
Heat destroys? thiamin
What are the 2 classes of vitamins? fat soluble and water soluble
Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed like? lipids
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored? liver and fatty tissue
Water soluble vitamins must be consumed more? regularly because the body does not store them to any great extent
What is the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized? Vit. A
What is Vit. A plant derived precursor? beta carotene
Vit. A plays roles in? gene expression, vision, cell differentiation, immunity, and reproduction and growth
What are the 3 different forms of Vit. A? retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid
Retinal is active in? vision
Retinoic acids act as a? hormone
Where is retinol stored? liver
What picks up retinol from the liver and carries it to the blood? retinol binding protein
Enzymes preform the metabolic work of? tissue
Factors that influence gene expression also affects? the metabolic activities of the tissues and health of the body
What 2 things to Vit. A do for the eye? maintains a healthy, crystal clear outer window (cornea) and participates the events of light detection at the retina
What is pigment? a molecure capable of absorbing certain wavelengths of light so that it reflects only those that we perceive as a certain color
The retina contains? pigment molecules called rhodopsin
What is rhodopsin? a light sensitive pigment of the retina, contains the retinal form of Vit A
Each rhodopsin is composed of a protein called? opsin
When light hits the eye rhodopsin responds by? changing shape and becoming bleached
When vit. A is lacking the eye has difficulty? adapting to changing light levels
The lag in the recovery of night bision is known as? night blindness
Where is vit. A found besides they eye? skin and linings of organs where is promotes protein synthesis and cell differentiation
What is the process of cell differentiation? allows each type of cell to mature so that it is capable of performing functions
What are the surfaces of the body covered with? epithelial cells
The epithelial cells in the body must stay? smooth
What does the mucous membrane line? stomach
Vitmain A plays what role in epithelial cells? maintains the integrity
Vitamin A is called what with immunity? anti infective
What is important for normal production and growth? Vit. A
What does Vit. A do in men? participates in sperm development
What does Vit. A do in women? normal fetal growth and development
In a developing baby Vit. A is important to the development of? NS, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeleton, eyes, and ears
What is beta cartene? an extreme antioxidant
What are antioxidant? compounds that protect other compounds from attack by oxygen
Oxygen triggers the formation of coupounds known as? free radicals that can start chain cell stuctures and impair cell functions
Beta carotene in foods may protect against? cancer
What are the dietary antioxidants? Beta Carotene, Vit. E, Vit. C, and the mineral selenium and many phytochemicals
Where is Vit. A stored? liver
How long would it take Vit. A to be completely gone out of the body? 1-2 years
What is keratin? hard inflexible protein of hair and nails
What happens when vit. A lacks in cells? skin cells harden and flatten, making it dry, rough, scaly, and hard
What is keratinization? accumulation of keratin makes a lump around each hair follicle
When is Vit. A toxicity possible? when people consume concentrated amounts of preformed vitamin A
What can excess of vit. A during pregnancy cause? spinal cord injuries to the fetus
Excess Vit. A does what to bone? weakens them
What is used to see the beta cartene in foods? retinal activity equivalants
Two much beta carotene causes skin to turn? yellow
What are the richest cources of Vit. A? liver and fish ol
What are other sources of Vit. A? milk, cheese, and fortified cerals
What contains beta carotene? carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, cantaloup and apricots, spinach, broccoli
The body can synthesize what with sunlight? Vit. D
The liver manutactures a Vit. D? precursor
Vit. D requires conversions from what to become active? kidney and liver
Vit. D is a ? hormone
What are Vit. D target organs? Small intestine, kidneys, and the bones
What enhances or suppresses the activity of genes that regulate cell growth? Vit. D
A deficit in vit. D is caused by? high blood pressure, CVD, diabetes, RA, MS
What does Vit. D do in bones? assist in absorption of calcium and phospherous
What are key bone nutrients? Vit. DKA, Ca, Mg, phosphorus, Flouride
When the diet is sufficient, vit. D enhances? their absorption from the GI tract
When the diet is insufficient, Vit. D provides? the needed minerals from toher sources
What is a vit. D deficiency disease? rickets
What happens in rickets? the bones fail to calcify normally, causing growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities
What is a painful bone disease? osteomalacia
What is reduced bone density? osteoporosis
What does excess calcium cuase? stones
What is most toxic of all vitamins? Vit. D
Vit. D tox can not come from the? sun
What foods have vit. D? effes, liver, butter, milk
Vit. D recommendations increase with? age
What is tocopherol? vit. E
Vit. E is a? fat soluble antioxidant
Vit. E protects other substances from? oxidation
Vit. E is esprecially effective in preventing the oxidation of? polyunsaturated fatty acids
When there is not enought vit. E what happens to cells? RBC tend to break open and spill their contents
What is erythrocyte hemolysis? vit. E deficiency
Vit. E treatment corrects? hemolytic anemia
What happens with Vit. E deficiency? loss of muscle coordination, vision, speech
Processing or heating food destorys? Vit. E
What happens with Excess Vit. E? interfere with blood coagulation
What foods are Vit. E in? vegie oilds and products made from them, butter, salad dressing
What is really rich in vit. E? Wheat germ oil
Vit. K is good for? blood clotting, and synthesis of bone protein
Adequate intake of Vit. K does what for bones? protect against fractures
When blood clotting factors decrease? hemorrhagic disease results
Bacteria in the Intestinal tract synthesize? vit. K
When does Vit. K deficiency occur? conditions of fat malabsorbtion, medications
An infant is born with a ______ digestive tract? sterile
What shot should babies get at birth? Vit. K
What had Vit. k? leafy vegies, cabbage, vegie oils
Vit. E is in? plant foods
Vit. E may protect agaisnt? heart disease
Vit. E is especially important in the? lungs
What Vit. are water soluble? Vit. B and C
Water soluble vitamins are easily absorbed into? the bloodstream and are just as easily excreted
Vit. B help the body? use energy fuel
Each B vit. is part of an enzyme helper known as? coenzyme
What is a coenzyme? is a small molecule that combines with an enzyme to make it active
What are the 5 active forms of b Vit.? thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin
What doe B6 do? assists enzymes that metabolize amino acids?
Folate and B12 helps? cells to multply
What is beriberi? a thiamin deficiency disease that is caused by the loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness
What is pellagra? the niacin deficiency disease (Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death)
What is refined grain? a product from which the bran, germ and husk have veen removed leaving only the endosperm
What is fortification? the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in little amounts,
What is enrichment? the addition to a food of nutrients to meet a specified standard
What is niacin equivalents? the amount of niacin present infood
What are niacin rich foods? meat, fish, chicken, PB
What are nutritious foods? pork, legumes, sunflower seeds
What are neural tube defects? malformations of the brain, spinal cord,or both that occur druing embryonic development
What is intrinsic factor? inside the system
What is pernicious? a vit b12 deficiency disease caused by lack of intrinsic factor, causes large immature RBC
What is scurvy? The vit C deficiency disease
What is ascorbic acid? one of the two active forms of Vit C
What is collagen? the characteristic protein of connective tissues
What is latent? the period in the course of a disease when the condition is present but their symptoms havent appeared
What is overt? out in the open
What is gout? a metabolic disease in which crystals of uric acid precipitate in the joints
B vitamins assist in the release of? energy from glucose, amino acids and fats
Folate and Vit B12 are important for? cell division
Thiamine is important for? functioning of the nerves and muscles
Vit C aids in? tissue building and metabolic reactions
Vit. C is found in? citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppers, green leafy vegies, and stawberries
Stress and Illness increase the need of? Vit C
Severs Vit C. deficiency causes? scurvy
B complex vitamins have many functions in? cell metabolism
Sources of Vit B are? green leafy vegies and enriched grains
What is thiamin for? proper digestion, peristalsis, and providing energy to smooth muslce, glands, the CNS, and blood vessels
Riboflavin is required for? growth and tissue healing
Riboflavin deficiency results in? cheilosis, smooth/swollen red tongue, and dermatitis
Sources of riboflavin are? milk, meants, and green leafy
Niacin aids in the metabolism of? fat, glucose, and alcohol
Deficiency of niacin causes? pellagra
What are sources include? beef liver, nuts, legumes, whole grains
Pantothenic acid is involved in? biological reactions
deficiency in pantothenic acid results in? anemia and CNS changes
What are rich sources of pantothenic acid? organ meats, egg yolk, avacados, nuts, brown rice
Pyrodoxine is needed for? cellular function and synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, and niacin
High intake of pyridoxine supplements causes? sensory neuropathy
biotin serves as a? coenzyme used in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the formation of glucose
Folate is required for? hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, cellular reproductions, and prevention of neural tube defects
Deficiency of folate causes? megaloblastic anemia, CNS disturbances, and fetal neural tube defects
Cobalamin is necessary for? the production of RBC
Cobalamin is seen mostly in? strict vegetarians
All fat soluble vitamins have possibility for? toxicity
Who should not have more fat soluble lipids? clients with liver disease
how many essential vitamins are there? 13
Vit. C is found in? citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppers, leafy vegies, stawberries
Stess and illness increase the need for? Vit C
What are sources of Vit. B? Grenn leafy vegies, and unprocessed or enriched grains
What is thiamin for? digestion, peristalsis, energy to smooth muscles, glands, CNS
Riboflavin is for? growth and tissue healing
Niacin is for? metabolism of fats, glucose and alcohol
Pantothenic acid is involved in? biological reactions
What is pyridoxine for? cellular function and synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters and niacin
What is folate for? for hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, cellular reproduction, and prevention of neural tube defects in utero
Vitamins are? organic substances required for many enzymatic reactions
What is the main functions of vitamins? to be a catalyst for metabolic functions and chemical reactions
What many essential vitamins are there? 13
What are the 2 classes of vitamins? water soluble and fat soluble
What are water solubue vitamins? C and B complex
What are fat soluble vitamins? ADEK
Vitmans yield? no energy
What aids in tissue building and metabolic reactions? Vit C
Where is vit C found? citris fruits, tomatoes, pepper, green leafy vegies, and strawberries
What increases the need for Vit C? stress and illness
What does a deficiency is Vit C cause? scurvy (bleeding, painful joints, weak bones, and swollen gums)
B Complex function in? cell metabolism
Thaimin B1 is for? muslce energy, GI support, and CV support
What are major sources of Thaimin B1? meats, grains, and legumes
What is the deficiency for Thaimin B1? beriberi, altered digestion, CNS and CV problems
What are actions is Riboflavin B2? Growth, energy, tissue healing
What are major sources of Riboflavin B2? milk, meat, green leafy vegies
What are deficiecny of Riboflavin B2? Chelilosis, Skin eruptions, cracked lips, red swollen tongue
What are major actions of Niacin B3? energy and protein metabolism/cellular metabilism
What are major sources of Niacin B3? liver, nuts, legumes, whole grains
What is a deficiecny of Niacin B3? pellagra, skin lesions, GI and CNS symptoms, dementia
Pantothenic acid is involved in? biological reactions (energy, synthesis of fatty acid, phospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones)
Deficeincy of panothienic acids results in? anemia and CNS changes
What are rich sources of panothinic acids? organ meats, egg yolk, avocados, cashew, brown rice, broccoli, and milk
Pyrodoxine is need for? cellular function and synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters and niacin
High pyridoxine can cause? sensory neuropahty
What are sources of pyrodoxine? organ meats and grains
Biotin serves as a? coenzyme used in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolim and formation of glucose
Folate is required for? hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, lwer neural tube defects in fetus
What are sources of folate? liver, green leafy vegies, grain, and legumes
What are deficiencies of folate? megaloblastic anemia, CNS disturbance
What is major action of Cobalamin B12? hemoglobin synthesis, fatty acid metabolim
What are sources of cobalamin B12? organ meats, clams, oysters and grains
What is a deficiency of Cobalamin B12? pernicious anemia, GI symptoms, poor muslce coordination
Fat soluble vitamins can be stored for? long periods of time
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins depends on the? body's ability to absorb dietary fat
Who should not take more than the daily requirements of fat soluble vitamins? ppl with fever disease
Vit A is needed for? normal vision, tissue strength, growing and tissue healing
What are major sources of Vit A? orange/yellow colored foods, liver, dairy
What is dificiency of Vit A? Reduced night vision, dry/thick eyes, mucosa changes
What is action of Vit D? maintain serum Ca and phosphorus, aid in bone development
What are sources of Vit D? fush, diary, sun
What is deficincy of Vit D? low serum Ca, fragile bones, rickets
What is action of Vit E? protect ceels from oxidation
What are sources of Vit E? vegie oil, grains, nuts, dark green vegies
What is deficiency of Vit E? hemolytic anemia, CNS changes
What is Action of Vit K? normal blood clotting, aids in bone metabolism
What a sources of Vit K? green leafy vegies, eggs, liver
What is deficiecny of Vit K? increased bleeding times
What is a precursor? inactive form of a vitamin, provitamin, must be converted to the active form
Vitamins are? organic (can be destroyed)
Where are fat soluble vitmins found? fat and oil
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored? liver and fatty tissues
What is beta carotene? plant derived precursor, extremely effective antioxidant
What do antioxidants do? Protect other coupounds from attack from oxygen
Where is Vit A stored? liver
Created by: alicia.rennaker