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GI Hormones - Physio

GI Hormones

Gastrin G cells (antrum) Inc H+ secretion & gastric motility Regulation: Inc via stomach distension (meal), AAs, vagus stimuli; Dec via pH < 1.5
CCK I cells (duodenum, jejunum) Inc pancreatic & gallbladder secretions; Dec gastric emptying (increase metabolism time) Regulation: Inc by presence of FAs in duodenum
Secretin S cells (duodenum) Inc pancreatic HCO3- & bile secretion; Dec gastric H+ secretion (by dec gastrin) -Diagnostic in Zollinger-Ellison (inc gastrin levels!) Regulation: Inc by FAs in duodenum
Somatostatin D cells (islets) Dec gastric acid/pepsinogen, pancreatic, & gallbladder secretion; Dec insulin/glucagon & VIP (treats VIPoma) Regulation: Inc by acid; Dec by vagal stimuli
GIP K cells (duodenum, jejunum) Dec gastric H+ & Inc insulin Regulation: Inc by FAs, AAs, oral glucose
VIP parasympathetic ganglia (sphincters, gallbladder) Inc intestinal H2O/electrolyte secretion; Inc sphincter relaxation Regulation: Inc by distention & vagus; Dec by adrenergic
NO Endothelia Inc smooth muscle relaxation (LES)
Ghrelin P/D1 cells (stomach) Inc GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolaction Regulation: Inc prior to eating (regulate meal initiation!); Dec after meals
IF Parietal cells Bind B12; taken up in ileum
Gastric Acid Parietal cells Dec stomach acid Regulation: Inc by histamine, ACh, gastrin; Dec by GIP, somatostatin, prostaglandin
Pepsin Chief cells Protein digestion Regulation: Inc by vagal stimuli & acid (converts pepsinogen)
HCO3- Mucosal cells & Brunner's glands (duodenum) Neutralizes acid
Created by: lamsonma