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Lecture Unit 1

Articulations Joints. Any place where 2 bones come together.
Mobility vs. Stability Strength is inversely proportional to mobility. Mobile joints get damaged more. The more mobile the joint, the less stable it is.
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION Based on amount of movement permitted. (3 types). Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diarthrosis.
Synarthrosis Immovable joints. Functional Classification.
Amphiarthrosis/Amphiarthrotic Slightly movable joints. Functional classification.
Diarthrosis Freely movable joints. Functional Classification. ex. ankle, shoulder, wrist, finger.
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION Based on 2 things: Material or type of CT that binds bones together & Presence or absence of joint cavity. Fibrous, Cartilaginous, or Synovial.
Fibrous Connected by fibrous tissue. Gomphoses, sutures, syndesmoses.
Cartilaginous Connected by cartilage. Synchondroses (Hyaline cartilage), Symphyses (Fibrocartilage).
Synovial Contains joint cavity.
Gomphoses Fibrous joints. Gums. Synarthrotic. peg-in-socket joint. Articulation of tooth with its socket. Periodontal ligament-attaches tooth to bone.
Sutures Fibrous Joints. Synarthrotic. Bones tightly bound by minimum amount of fibrous tissue-collagen. Found only between bones of the skull. Coronal, lambdoid, sagittal, squamous.
Syndesmoses Fibrous joints-structural classification. Amphiarthrotic-functional classification. Bones connected exclusively by ligaments. Ligaments connect bone to bone. Tendons connect muscle to bone. Tibiofibular joint & interosseous membrane between radius & ulna.
Synchondroses Cartilaginous joints. Chondro=Cartilage. Synarthrotic. Hyaline cartilage unites the bones. Epiphyseal plates, rib-manubrium, costochondral joints.
Symphyses Cartilaginous joints. Amphiarthrotic. Fibrocartilage unites bones. Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs.
Synovial Joints Diarthrotic (freely movable). Each contains fluid filled joint cavity. Glenohumeral, temporomandibular, elbow, knee, etc.
Articular capsule/Joint capsule 2 layers. Outer: fibrous dense CT. Purpose: strength. Inner: Synovial membrane-makes synovial fluid. Purpose: Lubrication.
Accessory Structures Bursa (and tendon sheath). Fat Pads. Tendons
Bursa (and tendon sheath) Fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid. Found where bones, ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons overlie one another and rub together.
Fat Pads Help protect the joint. Shock absorption.
Tendons Attach muscle to bone. Muscle turns into tendons. Shiny.
Ligament Connects bone to bone.
Fibular collateral ligament AKA Lateral collateral ligament. Prevents hyperadduction of the knee. Holds the knee in place. Be able to label.
Tibial collateral ligament AKA Medial collateral ligament. MCL. Prevent hyperabduction of the knee. Holds knee in place. Be able to label.
Anterior cruciate ligament ACL. Where it attaches to tibia. Keeps the tibia from sliding forward. Prevents anterior movement of the tibia and posterior movement of the femur. Be able to label.
Posterior cruciate ligament PCL. Where it attaches to tibia. Prevents posterior movement of the tibia and anterior movement of the femur. Keep tibia from sliding back. Be able to label.
Medial and lateral meniscus Made of fibrocartilage. Shock absorption.
Knee ligaments ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL, Medial and lateral meniscus.
Arthritis Inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints.
Gouty Arthritis Uric acid crystals in joint cavity. (Kidney stones in your joints). Dehydration increases chances.
Osteoarthritis Chronic degenerative condition; "wear and tear." Hurts more at night. Most people get this.
Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune disease; chronic inflammatory disorder. Antibodies destroy articular cartilage. Bone spurs form. Painful to break. Bones fully fuse in the end. Hurts more in the morning.
Lever Systems Lever, Fulcrum, Effort, Load. For movement around joints. 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class. 123, FRE.
Lever Rigid bar that moves. Location: Long bones.
Fulcrum Fixed point. Location: Joint.
Effort Applied force. Location: Muscle insertion.
Load Resistance. Location: Weight of body part.
1st, 2nd, or 3rd class levers 123, FRE. 1=Fulcrum in middle. 2=Resistance (load) in middle. 3=Effort in middle.
Created by: punkaloo