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Human Body CH 6

Mc-Graw Hill Emergency Care 2nd edition CH 6

Anatomy study of an organism
Physiology study of the normal functions of an organism
Cells basic unit of all living tissue
Tissue cluster of cells that perform a specialized function
Organ at least 2 different types of tissue that work together to perform particular function
Vital Organ brain, heart, and lungs that are essential for life
Organ System made of tissues and organs that work together to provide a common function
10 Major Organ Systems skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, integumentary, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and urinary
Homeostasis maintain constant internal enviroment (steady state)
Body Cavity hollow space in body that contain internal organs
Cranial Cavity located in the head
Spinal Cavity extends from the bottom of the skull to the lower back
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord consists of
Thoracic Cavity chest cavity located below the neck and above the diaphragm
Pericardial Cavity surrounds the heart
Plueral Cavity surround the lungs
Abdominal Cavity located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis (contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen)
Peritoneal Cavity potential space between 2 membranes that line the abdominal cavity
Pelvic Cavity area below the abdominal cavity
Umbilicus (Navel) intersects with the midline
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) contains liver, gallbladder, portions of the stomach, and the major blood vessels
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) contains stomach, spleen, and pancreas
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) contains appendix
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) contains intestines
Skeletal System consists of 206 bones
Bone Marrow located in the hollow cavity of many bones
Axial Skeleton includes skull, spinal column, sternum, and ribs
Appendicular Skeleton upper and lower extremeties (arms and legs)shoulder girdle, and the pelvic girdle
Shoulder Girdle bony arch formed by clavicles (collar bones) and scapulae (shoulder bones)
Pelvic Girdle bones that enclose and protect organs in the pelvic cavity
Skull bony skeleton of the head that protects brain from injury and gives head shape
Cranium contains eight bones that house and protect the brain
Frontal forehead bone
Parietal (2) top sides of the cranium
Temporal (2) lower sides of the cranium
Occipital back of the skull
Sphenoid central part of the floor of the cranium
Ethmoid floor of cranium and sides of septum
Face Bones 14
Orbits eye sockets
Nasal Bones upper bridge of nose
Maxilla upper jaw
Mandible lower jaw
Zygomatic cheekbones
Vertebral Column spine is made up of 32-33 vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae 7
Thoracic Vertebrae 12
Lumbar Vertebrae 5
Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx (tailbone) 3-4 fused vertebrae
Cervical Spine hold the head up and allow rotation left to right and movement forward and backward
Atlas 1st cervical vertebra
Axis 2nd cervical vertebra
Thorax consists of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs, the breastbone, and sternum
True Ribs 1-7 attached to the sternum by cartilage
Fasle Ribs 8-10 are attached to the cartilage of the 7th rib
Floating Ribs 11 and 12 are not attached to the front of ther sternum
Sternum consists of 3 sections
Manubrium superior portion of sternum (connects w/ clavicle and 1st rib)
Body middle portion of the sternum
Xiphoid Process inferior portion of the sternum
Upper Extremeties bones of the shoulder girdle, arms, forearms, and the hands
Humerus upper arm bone
Radius lateral and on the thumb sale
Ulna on the medial side
Olecranon (elbow) joint where humerus connects w/ radius and ulna
Carpals wrist
Metarcarpals hand
Phalanges fingers
Lower Extremeties pelvis, upper and lower legs, and the feet
Pelvis bony ring
Acetebulum hip bone
Femur thigh bone
Greater Trochanter large bony prominence on lateral shaft of the femur
Patella knee cap
Tibia shin bone
Fibula smaller leg bone
Tarsal make up the back part of the foot and heel
Metatarsals bones that make up the main part of the foot
Phalanges toes
Skeletal Muscles VOLUNTARY MUSCLE helps move the skeleton and help with body heat and posture
Tendons strong cords of connective tissuetha attaches muscle to bone
Ligaments groups of connective tissue that attach bones to bones and bones to cartiladge also provide support and strength to joints
Muscle Tone state of partial contraction
Smooth Muscle INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE found within tubular structures of gastrointestinal tract, urinary system, blood vessels, the eyes, and bronchi of resp system
Cardiac Muscle found in walls of the heart, produces the heart's contractions and pupms blood
Pharynx throat
Larynx voice box
Trachea windpipe
External nares nostrils
Hard palate floor of the nasal cavity
Soft palate fleshy and extends beyond the hard palate.
Sinuses 4 nasal cavities that drain the nose
Turbinates shelflike projections that protrude into the nasal cavity
Pharynx 3 parts= Nasopharynx, Oropharanyx, Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx directly behind the nasal caivty
Oropharynx middle part of throat, serves as a passageway for both food and air
Uvula small piece of tissue that hangs down in the back of the throat
Laryngopharynx lower part of the throat and surrounds the opening of the esophagus and larynx
Thyroid Cartilage adam's apple
Epiglottis uppermost cartilage and is shaped like a leaf
Circoid Cartilage lowermost cartilage of the larynx
Glottis space between the vocal chords
Esophagus part of digestive system and is a muscular tube behind the trachea
Bronchus joined to lung and leads to right and left lungs
Bronchioles end in alveolar ducts
Alveoli air sacs that look like clusters of grapes
Mediastinum space in the middle of the chest between the lungs
Parietal Pleura outer lining and lines the wall of chest cavity
Visceral Pleura inner layer and covers the surface of the lungs
Pleural Space between the visceral and parietal pleura
Pulmonary Ventilation breathing- mechanical process of moving air into andout of the lungs
Inspiration inhalation- process of breathing in and moving air into the lungs
Espiration exhalation- process of breathing out and moving air out of the lungs
Intercostal Muscles muscles between the ribs
Diaphragm dome shaped muscle below the lungs
Respiration exchange of gases between a living organism and enviroment
Internal Respiration cellular respiration- energuy released from molecules
External Respiration exchange of gases between lungs and blood cells in pulmonary capillaries
Erythrocytes red blood cells
Hemoglobin iron containing protein that bonds with oxygen
Created by: redbone7266