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AH-P&P Ch. 6

Health & Wellness

What is the old ways people viewed health? as the absence of disease
In the 1990's the US started focusing on? health promotion and disease prevention
Research shows what about health? has shown dramatic improvment in the nation's health
What are the two goals of healthy people 2010? to increase quality and years of healthy life and to eliminate health disparities
What four areas does healthy people include? promote healthy behaviors, promoting healthy and safe communities, imporving systems for personal and public health, and preventing and reducing diseases and disorders
What is health? state of complete physical, mental, and socail well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Every person has a personal? concept of health
Health varies between? different age goups, genders, races, and cultures
Health has widened to include? mental, social, and spiritual well being
What are life conditions? environment, diet, lifestyle practices
A nurses attitude toward health and illness should consider? The total person, as well as the environment in which the person lives
What is a model? a theoretical way of understant a concept or idea
Models represnt? different ways to approaching complex issues
What are health beliefs? a person's ideas, convictions, and attitudes about health and illness
What are positive health behaviors? activities related to maintaining, attaining, or regaining good health and preventing illness
What are types of positive health behaviors? shots, sleep, excercise, and nutrition
What are negative health behaviors? drug, alcohol abuse, poor diet, and refusal to take meds
What is the health belief model? it addresses the relationship between person's belief and behaviors
What does the health belief model help understand? how clients will behave in relation to their health and how they will comply with health care therapies
What is the first component of health belief model? the pt's perception of susceptibilty to an illness
What is the second component of health belief model? individual's perception of the seriousness of the illness
What is the third component of health belief model? results from the person's perception of the benefits of and barriers to taking aciton
Wht preventative actions might a pt do? lifestyle change, increased adherence to medical therapies, or a search for medical advice or treatment
What is the health promotion model? a complementary counterpart to models of health protection
Health promotion is directed at? increasing a pt's level of well bing
What 3 areas does the health promotion model include? individual characteristics and experiences, behavior specific knowledge and affect and behavioral outcomes
What are health promoting behaviors? improved health, enhanced functional ability, better quality of life
What is the basic human needs model? elements that are neccesary for humans survival and health
What is maslow's hierarchy of needs is what kind of model? nurses use to understand the interrelationships of basic human needs
Self actualization is the highest expression? of on'es individual potential and allows for continual discovery of self
Maslow's model takes into account? individuals experiences, always unique to the individual
Physical safety takes? priority
What doe sthe holistic health model do? attemps to create conditions that promote optimal health
Clients are the ultimate experts on? their own health and subjective experience
In the holistic health model clients are? involved in their healing process
Nurses using the holistic nursing model recognizes the natural? healing abilities of the body and incorporate complementary and alternative interventions
Internal and external variables influence? how a person think and acts
What are internal variables? developmental stage, intellectual backgroud, perception of functioning, and emotional factors
What does the study of development include? finding patterns or general principles that apply to most people most of the time
How are a person's beliefs about health shaped? by person's knowledge, lack of knowledge, or incorrect information about body functions and illnesses, educational background, and past experiences
What does perception of functioning include? level of fatigue, shortness of breath, pain
The way a person handles stress will effect? health beliefs and practices
What is one way a person expresses their spiritual factors? religous practices
What are external variables that affect a persons health? family practices, socioeconomic factors and clutural background
What are psychosocial variables? stability of the person's marital or intimate relationship, lifestyle habits, and occupational environment
Desire for approval and support effects? health beliefs and practices
economic factors may affect a pt's level? of health by increasing the risk for disease and influencing how or at what point the pt the client enters the health care system
What is another economic factor? money, food and shelter is more important than meds
What does cultural background influence? beleifs, values and customs, belief about cause of illness, as well as ways to restore health
What are health promotion activities? routine excercise and good nutrition
What does wellness education do? teaches people how to care for themselves in a healthy way and includes topics such as physical awareness, stress management, and self responsibility
What are illness prevention activities? immunization programs
What are the leading health indicators? physical activity, overweight, tobacco, substance abuse, reponsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury and violence, envirnmental quality, immuniztation, and access to health care
health can be influenced by? individual practices, stressors
Total health programs are directed at ? individuals' changing their lifestyle by developing habits that improve their level of health
Other programs are aimed at? specific health care problems
What are passive stratagies of health promotion? individuals gain from the activities of others without acting themselves
What are active stratagies of health promotion? where they are motivated to adopt specific health programs
What is health promotion? science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health
What is primary prevention? true prevention, it precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to client considered physically and emotionally healthy
What does primary prevention include? education programs, immunizations, and physical and nutritional fitness activities
What does primary prevention include ? all promotion efforts, as well as wellness education activites that focus on maintaining or proving the general health of individuals, families, and communities.
What does secondary prevention focus on? individuals who are experienceing health problems or illnesses and who are at risk for developing complications or worsening conditions
What are secondary preventions activites directed to? diagnosis and prompt intervention, thereby reducing severity and enabling the client to return to a normal level of health as early as possible
What does secondary prevention include? screening techniques and treating early stages of disease to limit disability by averting or delaying the consequences of advanced disease
When does tertiary prevention occur? when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversable
What does tertiary prevention involve? minimizing the effects of long term disease or disability by interventions directed at preventing complication and deterioration
Tertiary prevention aims to? help clients to acheive as high level of functioning as possible
What is tertiary prevention also called? preventive care
What is a risk factor? any situation, habit, social, or environmental condition, physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition, or spiritual or other variable that increases the vulnerability of an individual or group 2 an illness or accident
Risk factors increase? the chances that the individual will experience a particular disease or dysfunction
risk factors= health hazards
What are the catagories of risk factors? genetic and physiological factors, age, environment, and lifestyle
What do physiological risk factos involve? physical functioning of the body
What is heredity? genetic prodisposition to specific illness
Age increases or decreases? susceptibility to certain illness
Where we live and the condition of that area determine? how we live, what we eat, the disease agents to which we are exposed, our state of health, and out ability to adapt
Many activities, habits, and practices involve? risk factors
Stress is a lifestyle? risk factor
Stress also interfers with? health promotion activities and the ability to implement needed lifestyle modification
the goal of risk factor identification is to? assist clients in visualizing those areas in their life that can be modified or even eliminated
What is the first setop in health promotion? identifying risk factors
Attempts to change may be aimed at? cessation of a health damaging behavior or adoption of a healthy behavior
Change involves movement through? a series of stages
What are the stages of the transtheorectical model? precontimplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance
What is precontemplation? no intention to change
What is contemplation? considering a change later
What is preparation? making small changes
What is maintenance? maintaining a changed behavior
change programs are designed for? those who are ready to take action regaurding their health problems
Maintenance of healthy lifestyle can? prevent hospitalizations and lower cost of health care
What is illness? state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spritiual functioning is diminished comparted to previously
What are the 2 types of illness? acute and chronic
What is an acute illnes? short duration but severe
What is a chronic illness? it is usually longer than 6 months, and can also affect functioning in any dimension
What is illness behavior? how people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system
illness is also affected by? internal and external variables
Internal variables influencing the way clients behave when they are ill? perceptions of symptoms and the nature of the illness, a clien'ts coping skills
If a pt thinks their illness is disruptive they will? get care
The nature of the illness also affects? a client's illness behavior
What are external variables influencing illness behavior? visibility of symptoms, social group, cultual backgroud, economic variables, accessibility of the health care system, and social support
Short term illnesses has only a few? changes in the functioning of the client and family
When there is a change in body image what stages does the client go through? shock, withdrawl, acknowledgement, acceptance, and rehabilitation
Withdrawl is? an adaptive copingmechanism that assists the client in making an adjustment
What is self concept? a mental self image of strengths ad weakness in all aspects of personality
With illness what is common with roles? role reversal
What is family dynamics? the process by which the family functions, make decisions, gives support to individual members, and copes with everyday changes and challanges
Created by: alicia.rennaker