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Stack #54654

WGU Science test terms

Mercury small, rocky craters, 2nd smallest planet, dense iron core, no moon
Venus hottest, iron core, almost same size and mass of earth
Earth only planet that supports life, densest planet
Mars closest to Earth, dry, rocky , dusty RED PLANET, iron core
Jupiter mainly gas, largest planet, 5th planet from sun
Saturn 2nd largest planet, made of hydrogen and helium,9.4 X diameter of Earth, rings of rock and ice
Uranus 3rd largest planet, lays on side, mostly methane gas, frozen w/ molten core
Neptune 4th largest planet, Gasseus, giant, frigid blue
Pluto oval shaped orbit, smallest planet, 2/3 diameter of Earth's moon, may be just an astroid
comet a celestial body, head of ice gas and dust, tail of dust and ionized gas
asteroid made of rock and iron, orbit sun,
meteor small part of broken asteroid
sun largest star, source of all Earth's energy, ball of plasma
moon natural satellite of Earth: gravitational forces cause tides
meteorites remnants of meteors that fall to earth
gravity force of attraction or pull between objects
inertia tendency of a moving object to keep moving
Newton's 1st law without force a body at rest stays at rest, a moving body continues moving without force to stop it.
Newton's 2nd law acceleration=force/mass
Newton's 3rd law force of a downward object equals force of upward object, force comes in pairs
conduction ex. place a hot object with cold object and both become warm
convection internal energy moves from place to place
radiation tranfer of energy from one place to another as light
wave length distance from one crest to the next
refraction bending of light as it passes from more dense to less dense mediums
reflection waves bouncing off a suface
diffraction bending of waves around an object
sound characteristics speed, frequency, wavelength, amplitude
wave phenomena reflection, refraction, diffraction, displacement
interference when waves travel through same medium at the same time
light made of photons
fission nucleus of high mass is split, used for commercial energy
fusion merging of different elements, not used as power source yet
fission heavy nucleus breaks up to form light nuclei
fission reactions can be spontaneous
fission chain reaction can sustain the reaction, once started
fusion no chain reaction is present
fusion reaction can never be spontanious
fusion two light nuclei combine to form a heavy nuclei
matter anything that has MASS and VOLUME
mass amount of matter in an object
volume amount of space an object takes up
weight measure of the force of gravity between two objects
length measure of distance from point A to point B
temperature measure of average kinetic energy of particles
density mass per unit of volume
energy to do work, move matter
light wavelengths are sensed as colors
sound does not travel in vacuum
light part of electromagnetic spectrum of waves
inclined plane slanted surface, ramp to move objects across distances
lever arm that pivots against a fulcrum
pulley reverses direction of force with a cord wrapped around a wheel
oxidation loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion
reduction gain of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion
chemical bonding atoms being held together in molecules or crystals
catalyst substance that accelerates chemical reaction without being tranformed
reducing agent loses electrons and is oxidized
oxidizing agent gains electrons and is reduced
static electricity imbalance of positive and negative charges
electric current movement of electrons that flow
series circuit electrons follow a single path from source to destination
parallel circuit more than one path is provided for electrons to flow
kinetic energy form of energy associated with motion
potential energy stored energy
electrical energy energy of moving electrons
thermal energy energy of heat
radiant energy energy of electromagnetic waves and light
nuclear energy stored energy of chemical nuclei
cause electricity movement of electrons escaping from atom
cause magnetism spinning of electrons while still part of atom
velocity speed and direction of an object
speed rate or measure of motion
displacement how far an object has moved
distance how far an object has traveled
acceleration rate at which speed or direction is changing
Periodic tables purpose predict possibilities of new elements
Periodic tables purpose classify elements into groups w/ similar properties
covalent bonding two or more atoms share electrons to achieve chemical stability
ionic bonding atom w/ tendency to lose electrons + atom w/ tendency to gain electrons=chemical stability
molecule tightly bonded groups of atoms
compound molecule that contains at least two different elements
single atom smallest part of an element
protons positive charge
nuetrons no charge
electrons negative charge
solution mixture where one substance dissolves in another
protons and nuetrons stay in nucleus
atoms matter is composed of these
nucleus center of an atom
orbitals where electrons are found
gases spread to fill container, can be compressed
liquids not easily compressed,take shape of container
solids keep shape, cannot be compressed
minerals solid material of earth's crust w/ a definite composition
metamorphic rock formed from heat and pressure inside the earth
igneous rock formed from magma
sedimentary rock materials cement together by chemicals or pressure
sea large expanse of saline water connected to an ocean
weather daily conditions in atmosphere
climate atmospheric conditions of a region over time
results of plate tectonics form igneous rock, volcanoes, faults, islands form, mountains form
strait narrow body of water connecting two larger bodies of water
swamp freshwater wetland
tributary stream or river that flows into a larger river
mesa land formation w/ flat top and steep walls
ocean large body of salt water surrounding a continent
peninsula body of land surrounded by water on three sides
river large flowing body of water connected to a sea or ocean
plateau large flat area of land that is higher than surrounding land
plain flat lands w/ small changes in elevation
sea large body of salt water connected to an ocean
sound wide inlet of sea or ocean that is parallel to coastline
equator imaginary line halfway between N and S poles
estuary where a river meets a sea or ocean
glacier slowly moving river of ice
gulf part of ocean partly surrounded by land
isthmus narrow strip of land connecting two larger land masses
archipelago group of islands clustered together
bay body of water partly enclosed by land, smaller than a gulf
butte flat topped rock or hill w/ steep sides
canyon deep valley w/ very steep sides
cape pointed piece of land that sticks out into a large body of water
cove horseshoe shaped body of water along a coastline
Continents (seven) Africa, Antarctica,Asia,Australia, Europe, North America, South America
channel body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
dune hill or ridge made of sand
Benthic realm organisms that live on the sea floor
Pelagic realm organisms that live in the water(diatoms)
oxytocin hormone that stimulates uterine contractions
lactation milk production in females
semen made up of sperm and secretions
female gonads ovaries
male gonads testes
testes produce sperm and testoserone
ovaries produce eggs and estrogen
meiosis process that produces sperm
gonads sex organs that produce gametes
food chain example grass-grasshopper-mouse-snake-hawk
ultimate source of energy sun
inorganic nutrients are recycled, energy is not
ultimate fate of energy lost as heat in ecosystem
Darwinian view predicts that evolutionary transitions should leave signs in fossil record
Oldest known fossils are of Prokaryotes evidence that supports Darwin
new breed of dog genetic
person's physical activity level environmental
color of a chameleon environmental
speed of race horses genetic
long necks of giraffes genetic
altitude where you live environmental
traits physical characteristics in living things
Genetics study of heredity
heredity tranference of traits from parent to offspring
inheritence process by which offspring become predisposed to traits of parent
how the body fights disease tonsils, lymph system,thymus, spleen, appendix, bone marrow
bacteria can adapt to surroundings
bacteria many are beneficial
viruses only reproduce inside living cell
viruses are dormant w/ out a host
bacteria have ribosomes
bacteria can reproduce independently
viruses have a protein coat and core of genetic material
bacteria can be killed w/ antibiotics
viruses antibiotics will not kill them
viruses intracellular parasite
photosynthesis process of harnessing energy of sunlight to produce food for plants
taxonomy classification of things
basic needs of life food, water, air , space , shelter
hierarchy of biological organization organism-organ-tissue-cell-organelle-molecule
tissues cells work together
organs tissues work together
systems organs work together
cells organelles work together
define the question 1. scientific method
gather information 2. scientific method
form hypothesis 3. scientific method
perform experiment/ collect data 4. scientific method
analyze data 5. scientific method
interpret data/ draw conclusions 6. scientific method
publish results 7. scientific method
purpose of scientific method to propose explanations for natural phenomena
hypothesis guess regarding outcome of the change to the system being studied
Aristotle earth, air , fire ,water
13th century Aquinas and Magnus
Roger Bacon urged people to "look at the world"
16th century Francis Bacon advocated experimentalism
Nicolaus Copernicus said earth is round and revolves around the sun
17th century Newton, Galileo, Archbishop James Usher
dependent variable what you are measuring
independent variable what you are in control of
Linnaean classification system Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family , genus, species
rhyme to remember Linnaean classification of Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species King Phillip Came Over From Germany Swimming
Charles Darwin was a naturalist on the HMS Beagle
population all members of one species in a given area
community interaction of different species in a given area
ecosystem community plus temperature, humidity, light etc.
biosphere the sum of the planet's communities and ecosystems
Barents sea warm, salty Atlantic water from North Atlantic drift
Barents sea cold arctic water from the north
Barents sea warm coastal water from Altantic and Polar waters
Caribbean sea tropical,adjacent to Atlantic ocean, southeast of Gulf of Mexico
Grand Banks group of under water plateaus on the North American continental shelf
S. China sea marginal, part of the Pacific,from Singapore to Strait of Taiwan
Created by: tifferdu
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