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DIT 2009 WK 10

Q&A from DIT emailed questions WK 10

Clinical use for Tamoxifen? Breast cancer and preventing osteoporosis
What is the main concern when using Tamoxifen? May inc risk of endometrial carcinoma due to partial agonist effects on endometrium
What other agent may be a better choice than Tamoxifen? Raloxifene b/c it is an endometrial antagonist
Both LMN & UMN lesions will present with? Weakness
Signs of a LMN lesion? Atrophy, fasciculation (twitching), decreased reflexes, decreased tone
Signs of an UMN lesion? Babinski +, spastic paralysis, increased reflexes, increased tone
What is hexokinase? ubiquitous with high affinity (low Km), low capacity (low Vmax), uninduced by insulin
What is glucokiinase? Liver and B cells with low affinity (high Km), high capacity (high Vmax), induced be inlusin
Possible causes of SIADH? Ectopic ADH, CNS disorders/head trauma, pulmonary disease, drugs (cyclophosphamide)
Cancer most commonly associated w/ SIADH? Small cell lung cancer
Female homologue to the male corpus spongiosum? Vestibular bulbs
Female homologue to the male Cowper/bulbourethral glands Greater/Bartholin vestibular glands
Female homologue to the male prostate gland Urethral and paraurethral glands (of Skene)
Female homologue to the male glans penis Glans clitoris
Female homologue to the male ventral penile shaft Labia minora
Female homologue to the male scrotum Labia majora
Two antiviral agents that can be used to treat CMV infection? Gancyclovir and Foscarnet
What drugs regulate the secretion of gastric acid? Atropine, Cimetidine, Octreotide, Omeprazole
What hormones regulate the secretion of gastric acid? ACh, Gastrin, Histamine, Prostaglandins, misoprostol, somastatin
What is the Cushing reaction? Inc intracranial pressure constricts arterioles leading to cerebral ischemia and thus hypertension (sympathetic response) and reflex bradycardia
What is Cushings triad? Hypertension, bradycardia, respiratory depression
Goal of antianginal therapy? Reduction of myocardial O2 consumption (MVO2) by decreasing 1 or more of the derterminants of MVO2
Cause of Horner’s syndrome? Sympathectomy of face, assc w/ lesion of spinal cord above T1 – Pancoast’s tumor, Brown-Sequard syndrome (cord hemisection), late stage syringomyelia
symptoms are seen in Horner’s syndrome? Ptosis (superior tarsal muscle damaged – sympathetic), Anhidrosis and flushing of affected side of the face, and Miosis
MC vitamin deficiency in the US? Folic Acid (B9)
Vit B9 def will manifest as... Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia w/o neurological symptoms
Pt population most prone to transposition of the great vessels? Offspring of diabetic mothers
Substance that should be given to a newborn w/ transposition of the great vessels? PGE (Prostaglandins)
Which part of the brain is responsible for attention/alertness? Reticular activating system (midbrain)
Lesion in this part of the brain results in coma Reticular activating system (midbrain)
Anatomic structures found in the retrperitoneum? Duodenum (2nd & 3rd), descending colon, ascending colon, kidney and ureters, pancreas (except tail), aorta, IVC, adrenal glands, and rectum
From which arteries do the umbilical arteries arise? Internal iliac arteries
Classic presentation of a pt with Takayasu’s arteritis? “Pulseless disease” – Fever, Arthritis, Night sweats, Myalgia, Skin nodules, Ocular disturbances, Weak pulses in upper extremities, Constriction of Ao
Give the exceptions to informed consent Pt lacks decision-making capacity or is legally incompetent, implied consent in an emergency, therapeutic privilege, Waiver
Portion of the renal tubule that is impermeable to sodium, passively reabso Thin descending loop of Henle
Portion of the renal tubule where Ca reabsorption takes place and is influenced by the PTH? Distal convoluted tubule
Portion of the renal tubule responsible for reabsorbing the majority of glucose and amino acids Early proximal tubule
Portion of the renal tubule responsible for Na reabsorption regulated by aldosterone Distal convoluted tubule
Portion of the renal tubule that is impermeable to water, actively reabsorbs Na, K, and Cl Thick ascending limb
Portion of the renal tubule that reabsorbs the majority of bicarbonate, sodium, and water Early Proximal Tubule
Portion of the renal tubule that has water reabsorption regulated by ADH Distal Convoluted Tubule (Principal cell)
Describe the 1st stage of sleep 1(5%): Light sleep bruxism
Describe the 2nd stage of sleep 2(45%): Deeper sleep
Describe the 3rd and 4th stages of sleep 3-4(25%): Deepest, non-REM sleep; sleep walking; night terrors; bedwettin
Describe REM sleep REM (25%): Dreaming, loss of motor tone, possibly a memory processing function, erections, inc brain O2 use
Ototoxic and nephrotoxic antibiotics Vancomycin and Aminoglycosides
Created by: snezya24