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Pharm Chapter 3

Pharmacology Chapter 3

A neonate is how old? person younger than 1 month of age; new born infant
What is diffusion? the passive movement of a substnace between different tissues from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
What is active transport? the active (energy-requiring) movement of a substance between different tissues va biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained with cell membranes.
What is the difference between diffusion and active transport? active transport requires energy where as diffusion is a passive process.
What are the 4 main lifespan considerations? 1)pregnancy 2)breast-feeding 3)neotatal and pediatric 4) elderly
Which trimester is the peroid of greatest danger for drug-induced developmental defects? First trimester
How do drugs cross the placenta? diffusion
During what trimester does the greatest percentage of maternally absorbed drug get to the fetus? 3rd trimester
What are the pregnancy saftey categories? Category A,B,C,D,X
Category__________ studies indicate no risk to human fetus. category A
Category_________ has possible fetal risk in humans reported; however, consideration of potential benefit vs risk may warrent use of these drugs in pregnany women. category D
Category _____ studies indicate no risk to animal fetus; info for humans not available. category B
Category_____ adverse effects reported to animal fetus, information for humans is not available. category C
Category_____ has fetal amnormalities reported and positive evidence of fetal risk in humans available from animal and human studies. These drugs should not be given to pregnant women. category X
Breast-fed infants are at risk for exposure to drugs consumed by the mother. True or False? True
For what age is the word child/pediatric used? 1 years to 12 years of age
What does a nomogram do? a graphic tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurements.
Polypharmacy is? the use of many different drugs concurrently in treating a patient, who ofter has several health problems.
What age is a person who is elderly? 65 or older
What is the risk-to-benefit ratio used for? breast-feeding; the risks of transfer of maternal medication to the infant in relation to the benefits of continuing breastfeeding and the therapeutic benefits to the mother.
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the neonate and pediatric pt. for absorbtion? gastric pH less acidic, gastric emptying slowed, intramuscular absorbtion faster and irregular.
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the neonate and pediatric pt. for distribution? the younger the person, the greater the % of total body water which means lower fat content, decrease in protein binding, immature blood-brain barrier (more drugs enter the brain)
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the neonate and pediatric pt. for metabolism? liver immature, older children may have increased metabolism requiring higher doses than infants.
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the neonate and pediatric pt. for excretion? kidney immaturity affects glomerular filtration rate and tubular secretion, decreased perfusion rate of the kidneys many reduce excretion of drugs
What are some factors affecting pediatric drug dosages? skin is thin and permeable, stomach lacks acid to kill bacteria, lungs have weaker mucus barriers, body temps less, hydration levels low, liver and kidneys are immature
what is the formula for the West monogram? (height/weight) BSA of adult/BSA of child * adult dose= esimated child's dose
Weight should be set in kg or lbs for pediatric patients? kg kilograms
What are the physiologic changes in the elderly patient? cardiovascular, gastrointestinal,hepatic, renal
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly pt. for absorbtion? gastric pH less acidic, gastric emptying slowed, movement through GI tract slowed, blood flow to GI tract reduced, use of laxatives accelerate GI mobility
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly pt. for distribution? lower total body water %, increased fat content, decreased productio of proteins by the liver/results in decreased protein binding to drugs and increased circulation of free drugs
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly pt. for metabolism? aging liver produces fewer microsomal enzymes, affecting drug metabolism, reduced blood flow to the liver
What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly pt. for excretion? decreased glomerular filtration rate, decreased # of intact nephrons
What are the problematic medication for the ELderly? analgesics (NSAIDS and opoids), anticoagulants, anticholinergics, antidepressants, antihyertensives,cardiac glycosides,sedatives, thiazide diuretics
What is the predicted % of the population over 65 in 2020? 20%
What type of medication has the symptoms of "I get dizzy when I stand up and I nearly fainted when I stood"(also her systolic BP dropped 15 pts when she stood)? antihypertensives
What is one of the main differences in pediatric vs adult that a nurse should watch out for before giving a drug to the patient? Infants have water composition of approx 75% (which means less fat)
Created by: westnm



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