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Respiratory *

QuestionAnswer
Ventilation The process of breathing in and out.
Diffusion The process of becoming widely spread.
During a very deep inspiration, the capacity of the chest cavity is (maximized, minimized) . maximized
Respiration is a/an (voluntary, involuntary) process. involuntary
The structures in which the gaseous exchange takes place must have thin (nonpermeable, permeable) walls so that diffusion can easily occur. permeable
The specialty that deals specifically with respiratory ailments is (pulmonology, cardiology) . pulmonology
Incentive (spirometry, spirometery) is a measurement of the breathing capacity of the lungs. spirometry
In inspiration, the lungs expand.
soft palate _____u/l upper
pharynx _____u/l upper
lungs _____u/l lower
right pulmonary bronchus _____u/l lower
nasal cavity _____u/l upper
larynx _____u/l upper
left pulmonary bronchus _____u/l lower
trachea _____u/l lower
hard palate _____u/l upper
external naris _____u/l upper
septum The partition of the nasal cavity.
ethmoid An irregularly shaped bone lying between the orbital plates of the frontal and anterior to the sphenoid bone.
vomer A bone of the nasal septum.
choana Link from external nares to nasopharynx.
choanae Links from external nares to nasopharynx (plural of choana).
turbinates Shell-shaped structures which create a passageway for air (another name for conchae).
meatus Anatomic term for a passageway in the body, especially one opening on the surface.
epithelium The lining of small cavities.
epistaxis Nosebleed.
olfaction The sense of smell.
olfactory epithelia Located in upper posterior part of nasal cavity, they are associated with reception of odor.
The lining of small cavities. epithelium
The partition of the nasal cavity. septum
Nosebleed. epistaxis
A bone of the nasal septum. vomer
Links from external nares to nasopharynx. choanae
paranasal sinuses Air pockets in the skull formed by the configuration of the facial bones.
maxillary Of or relating to the upper jaw.
frontal Referring to the frontal (coronal) plane or to the frontal bone or forehead.
sphenoid Butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull.
ethmoid An irregularly shaped bone lying between the orbital plates of the frontal and anterior to the sphenoid bone.
pharynx The passageway that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx.
nasopharynx Uppermost portion of the pharynx, lying above the soft palate.
auditory Pertaining to the sense of hearing.
eustachian Tube connecting the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
adenoids Pharyngeal tonsils.
oropharynx The middle portion of the pharynx.
laryngopharynx Where the respiratory and digestive systems diverge.
larynx Entrance to the lower respiratory tract.
thyroid cartilage A cartilage of the larynx shaped like a shield (also known as the "Adam's apple").
cricoid Ring-shaped cartilage making up the lower larynx.
arytenoid Vocal cord cartilage.
trachea Rigid tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi.
epiglottis Flap of cartilage that covers the trachea.
uvula Small piece of flesh that hangs down from the soft palate.
cilia A hairlike projection from the surface of a cell (plural form of cilium).
The (cricoid, arytenoid) cartilage is ring-shaped and makes up the lower larynx. cricoid
The (larynx, trachea) is also known as the windpipe. trachea
Cartilage in the vocal cord is called (arytenoid, cricoid). arytenoid
The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that covers the (uvula, trachea). trachea
The common name for the (larynx, trachea) is voicebox. . larynx
bronchi The two main branches of the trachea (singular is bronchus).
bronchus Either of the two main branches of the trachea.
carina Cartilaginous plate of the trachea.
bifurcation The site where a single structure divides into two.
bronchial tree Respiratory tubes that branch off and get progressively smaller in diameter. (Also known as pulmonary bronchus.)
tertiary Third in order.
bronchioles The tiny branches of air tubes within the lungs.
alveoli Functional units of the respiratory system
Third in order. tertiary
Another name for pulmonary bronchus. bronchial tree
Cartilaginous plate of the trachea. carina
One of the two main branches of the trachea. bronchus
The tiny branches of air tubes within the lungs. bronchioles
mediastinal space Space separating the lungs.
mediastinum The space in the thoracic cavity behind the sternum and in between the two pleural sacs (containing the lungs).
lobules One of the smaller divisions making up a lobe.
pleura Serous membrane of the thoracic cavity.
visceral The pleura that adheres to the outer surface of the lung.
parietal The pleura that lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm.
Serous membrane of the thoracic cavity. pleura
Space separating the lungs. mediastinal space
The pleura which is adherent to the outer surface of the lung. visceral
The next division of lung lobes. lobules
The pleura that lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm. parietal
The sense of smell. olfaction
Another name for conchae. turbinates
The involuntary process of taking in and expelling air. ventilation
Cartilaginous plate of the trachea. carina
C-shaped portion of the respiratory tract. trachea
The pleura which lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm parietal
Tube connecting the nasopharynx to the middle ear. eustachian
chest pain Any discomfort in the thoracic cavity.
clubbing Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes with loss of the nailbed angle. This can be an indication of several pulmonary disorders, and is usually noted in conjunction with cyanosis and edema.
congestion Excessive or abnormal accumulation of fluid (such as mucus in the sinuses).
cough A sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs. This is a reflex to keep the airway free of foreign matter.
cyanosis Bluish discoloration particularly of the nailbeds and perioral area. Again, this is usually seen in conjunction with clubbing and edema.
dyspnea Shortness of breath.
hemoptysis Coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum, usually due to bleeding somewhere in the respiratory tract.
hiccup An involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm that occurs on inspiration and results in a distinctive sound. You may sometimes see this spelled "hiccough."
malaise A vague feeling of bodily discomfort and fatigue.
sputum Matter ejected from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea through the mouth.
A feeling of bodily discomfort or tiredness is referred to as (malaise, suprapubic). malaise
The term (hemoptisis, hemoptysis) involves coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum. hemoptysis
An involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm is called a (hicup, hiccup). hiccup
The consistency of (sputum, sputuum) can be a major factor in determining the pathology of a respiratory problem. sputum
Chest pain is described as discomfort in the (abdominal, thoracic) cavity. thoracic
purulent Consistency of sputum that contains pus.
viscous Consistency of sputum that is thick.
rales These are discontinuous nonmusical sounds heard primarily during inspiration. They are also called crackles.
rhonchi Continuous dry rattling sounds in the throat or bronchial tube that are due to a partial obstruction.
stridor A musical sound heard with a stethoscope on inspiration.
tachypnea Very rapid respirations.
wheezing Whistling or wheezing noises associated with breathing; a telltale symptom of asthma.
expectoration Sputum from the chest which may contain mucus, blood, cellular debris, microorganisms, and pus.
hypoxia An inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood.
apnea Condition where external breathing is suspended. Sleep apnea is the cessation of breath with a sudden onset during sleep and can be a fatal condition if left untreated.
Sputum which contains pus. purulent
Intermittent nonmusical sounds heard primarily during inspiration. rales
A telltale sign of asthma which includes whistling noises. wheezing
Thick sputum. viscous
Sputum from the chest which may contain mucus, blood, cellular debris, microorganisms, and pus. expectoration
percussion Tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes.
auscultation Listening for sounds within the body.
hypoxemia Deficiency of oxygen in blood (same as hypoxia).
hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen in blood (same as hypoxemia).
anoxia Absence of oxygen in inspired gases or in arterial blood or in the tissues; severe hypoxia.
hypercapnia An abundance of carbon dioxide present in the blood.
bronchoscopy Examination of the bronchi with a scope.
thoracentesis Surgical puncture of the chest wall in order to aspirate fluid.
Bluish discoloration. cyanosis
Coughing up blood. hemoptysis
Very rapid respirations. tachypnea
Examination of the bronchi with a scope. bronchoscopy
Containing pus. purulent
Shortness of breath. dyspnea
Listening to a body part. auscultation
Striking a body part with short, sharp blows. percussion
abscess A localized collection of pus buried in tissues, organs, or confined spaces.
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Chronic respiratory failure associated with various acute pulmonary injuries. It is characterized by pulmonary edema, respiratory distress, and hypoxemia. It is sometimes a complication of major surgery and is accompanied by infection.
apnea Cessation of breathing.
asphyxia Suffocation. This can be deliberate and traumatic, occur as a result of some obstruction of the airway, or due to some other cause.
asthma This is a condition that is marked by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea and it is manifested by wheezing. It can be due to an allergic reaction, strenuous exercise, irritant particles in the air, psychological stresses, or other factors.
paroxysmal A paroxysm is a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms.
atelectasis Incomplete expansion of a lung, a shrunken or airless lung. This can be either acute or chronic and can be complete or partial. This is determined via a chest x-ray.
bronchiectasis An irreversible chronic dilation of the bronchi that is usually accompanied by infection. It is manifested by fetid breath and paroxysmal coughing with the expectoration of mucopurulent matter.
fetid Having a rank or disagreeable smell.
expectoration The act of coughing up and spitting out materials from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
bronchitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the bronchial tubes. Significant contributing factors to bronchitis are
bronchopneumonia An inflammation of the lungs which usually begins in the terminal bronchioles.
bronchiolitis Another name for bronchopneumonia.
bronchoalveolitis Another name for bronchopneumonia.
bronchopneumonitis Another name for bronchopneumonia.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) A generalized term related to persistent airways obstructions.
The term "airways obstruction" refers to an increased resistance to airflow during forced expiration.
coccidioidomycosis A fungal disease that infects the respiratory system as a result of the inhalation of spores. Manifested primarily by cold symptoms.
Also called "valley fever." coccidioidomycosis
emphysema A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs, especially the lungs. In pulmonary emphysema, there is dilatation of the alveoli and destruction of their walls. It is a common cause of disability and eventual death for cigarette smokers.
empyema Accumulation of pus in a cavity of the body. Although there are different types, when the term is used without a qualifier, it refers to thoracic empyema, which is in the pleural space.
epiglottitis Inflammation of the epiglottis.
Another term for bronchopneumonia. bronchoalveolitis
Accumulation of pus in a cavity in the body. empyema
Generalized term related to persistent airway obstructions. chronic obstructive airway disease
The name given to an inflammation of the lungs which usually begins in the terminal bronchioles. bronchopneumonia
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs, especially the lungs. emphysema
epistaxis Nosebleed (hemorrhage from the nose).
hemothorax A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.
This often results from a blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest wall. hemothorax
hyaline membrane disease This is a disorder usually affecting premature newborns in which the alveoli are lined by a hyaline material. It usually results in extensive atelectasis and is often fatal.
hyperventilation A state in which there is an increase in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli, which results in a decrease in carbon dioxide tension.
infiltrate Material deposited in organs or cells which are not normal to it, or in excessive quantities. It is also a sign of acute inflammation.
interstitial lung disease Interstitial is a term that means pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces of a tissue. There are several types of interstitial lung disease in which there is an abnormal accumulation of many different cell types in the alveoli and
laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx. Usually associated with dryness and soreness of the throat, hoarseness, cough, and dysphagia.
A papilloma is a benign tumor.
In the respiratory system, these are common in children, starting at age one, and can grow exuberantly in the larynx. They are viral in origin and cause hoarseness. They can be removed surgically but tend to recur. papilloma
pertussis An acute, highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract, most frequently seen in young children and characterized by paroxysmal coughing. Also called "whooping cough."
pleural effusion Excess fluid in the pleural space. The presence of fluid in the pleural space is usually determined by x-ray and almost always requires a thoracentesis.
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity. hemothorax
Disease affecting premature newborns. hyaline membrane disease
Materials deposited in organs or cells which are not normal to it. infiltrate
A benign tumor. papilloma
Nosebleed. epistaxis
The patient was experiencing (hyperventalation, hyperventilation); she had an increase in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli. hyperventilation
The patient comes in with a past history of (interstittial, interstitial) lung disease. interstitial
Inflammation of the larynx is called (larynxitis, laryngitis). laryngitis
Whooping cough is another name for (pertussis, pertusis). pertussis
The patient was diagnosed with a (plural, pleural) effusion. pleural
Occupational pneumonia. pneumoconiosis
Fluid containing serum and blood. serosanguineous
Inflammation of the pleura. pleurisy
Black lung. anthracosis
Fluid that is clear and yellow. serous
serous Fluid that is clear and yellow.
sanguineous Bloody or blood-tinged fluid.
serosanguineous Fluid containing both serum and blood.
pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura. It is usually characterized by pain that is worse with breathing and coughing. The onset is usually sudden.
pneumoconiosis A condition characterized by the permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate matter into the lungs. It is also called occupational pneumonia.
anthracosis A common type of pneumoconiosis, also called “black lung.”
asbestosis A common type of pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
berylliosis A common type of pneumoconiosis due to beryllium dust.
silicosis A common type of pneumoconiosis due to sand particles.
pneumonia this is inflammation of the lung resulting in consolidation, which is defined as a pathologic process where normally aerated lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless mass.
There are many kinds of pneumonia caused by a variety of factors, the most common being a type of bacteria.
pneumonitis Another name for pneumonia.
Pneumonia can also be viral or fungal in nature.
consolidation A pathologic process where normally aerated lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless mass.
Hemophilus influenzae This is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The most serious strain of this is type b, which is usually called Hib pneumonia.
Klebsiella pneumoniae This is the most frequent of the gram-negative bacilli and it normally affects already compromised lungs, such as with the very young or the very old, hospital or nursing home patients, immuno-compromised hosts, or alcoholics.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa A gram-negative pathogen.
Acinetobacter A gram-negative pathogen.
Legionella pneumophila only accounts for 1% to 8% of pneumonias. It can occur at any age, and early phase symptoms include headache, malaise, fever, myalgia, and a cough which eventually produces mucoid sputum.
Legionnaires' disease Another name for Legionella pneumophila.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae This is the most common pathogen for children and young adults (age 5 to 35 years), but is otherwise quite rare. It has a long incubation period (10–14 days), which accounts for its steady spread. Early symptoms also mimic the flu, malaise, dry cough, and
Pneumococcus pneumoniae the most common cause for bacterial pneumonia. It usually begins with an upper respiratory infection, including congestion. The onset is often a single shaking chill followed by fever, pain with breathing, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production.
The bacteria (staphylococcus areus, Staphylococcus aureus) causes pneumonia with a high mortality rate. Staphylococcus aureus
Free air in the pleural cavity is referred to as (pneumothorax, pneumothroax). pneumothorax
Inflammation of the mucous membranes is called (rhinitis, rhinoitis). rhinitis
Inflammation of the sinus is (sinusitis, sinisitis). sinusitis
The most severe pneumonitis is called (granulomatous, granualomatous). granulomatous
Staphylococcus aureus accounts for approximately 2% of community-acquired pneumonias. Patients at particular risk are infants, the elderly, hospitalized patients, surgical patients, and patients with immunosuppression. Its symptoms closely mimic those of pneumococcal pneumoniae, although the mortality rate is
Streptococcus pneumoniae This has become relatively rare since World War I and is usually a complication of influenza, measles, chickenpox, or pertussis.
pneumothorax Free air in the pleural cavity between the visceral and parietal pleurae. It may occur either spontaneously or because of trauma or pathological process.
rhinitis Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Often accompanied by rhinorrhea (a runny nose).
rhinorrhea Runny nose.
sarcoidosis Also called Boeck sarcoid, this is a systemic disease of unknown etiology with the most severe manifestation being granulomatous pneumonitis.
Boeck sarcoid Another name for sarcoidosis.
granulomatous Pertaining to any small nodular aggregation of a certain kind of cells.
sinusitis Inflammation of a sinus. It is usually designated by the name of the sinus that is inflamed (e.g., ethmoid sinusitis).
tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils
tracheitis Inflammation of the trachea.
tuberculosis A chronic, recurrent infection most common in the lungs, although any organ may be affected.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis The gram-positive bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
upper respiratory infection (URI) The common cold.
Wegener's granulomatosis An uncommon disease that usually begins as a localized granulomatous inflammation of the upper and/or lower respiratory tract mucosa.
Inflammation of the trachea. tracheitis
The bacterium responsible for tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Disease of the respiratory tract mucosa. Wegener's granulomatosis
The common cold. upper respiratory infection
A chronic, recurrent infection most common in the lungs, although any organ may be affected. tuberculosis
Cessation of breathing. apnea
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity. hemothorax
Pneumonia caused by sand particles. silicosis
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. rhinitis
When normal lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless mass. consolidation
Pertaining to a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms. paroxysmal
The common cold. upper respiratory infection
Materials deposited in organs or cells which are not normal to it. infiltrate
A collection of pus in an organ, tissue, or confined space. abscess
An acute, highly contagious infection seen most often in children. pertussis
The bacteria responsible for tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Occupational pneumonia. pneumoconiosis
Inflammation of the palatine tonsils. tonsillitis
Fluid containing serum and blood. serosanguineous
Free air in the pleural cavity. pneumothorax
General term for persistent airways obstruction. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Pathology that causes hoarseness. laryngitis
Inflammation of the pleura. pleurisy
Pertaining to a small, nodular aggregation of cells. granulomatous
A shrunken or airless lung. atelectasis
Created by: trinka