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Endocrine system

Hypothalmus links our endocrine and nervous systems together. It drives the endocrine system.
Pituitary gland It receives signals from the hypothalamus. This gland has two lobes, the posterior and anterior lobes. The posterior lobe secretes hormones that are made by the hypothalamus. The anterior lobe produces its own hormones,
Thyroid gland The gland is critical to the healthy development and maturation of vertebrates and regulates metabolism.
Adrenal gland The gland is made up of two glands: the cortex and medulla. These glands produce hormones in response to stress and regulate blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and the body's salt and water balance.
Pancreas Is responsible for producing glucagon and insulin. Both hormones help regulate the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Gonads The reproductive gonads testes(male),ovaries(female), produce steroids that affect growth and development and also regulate reproductive cycles and behaviors. The major categories of gonadal steroids are androgens, estrogens and progestins.
Hypothalmus produce what hormone Oxytoxin and ADH
Oxytoxin hormon fctn Contract uterine muscle during labor. Releasing milk from mammary gland ( breast feeding)
ADH fctn stimulate water reabsorption by the kidney;also constrict blood vesse
Posterior pituitary? Produceces ADH and oxytocin
Anterior Pituitary Produces 5 galand hormones such gh, Proclain, tsh, acth, fsh and gonadotropic hormone.
TSH stimulate the the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone
ACTH Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete steroids. especially cortisol
GH Stimulate the growth of bone and soft tissue ; stymulates the synthesis of glucose during periode of fastingalso called samatotropin.
FSH Stimulate the ova and sperm.
LH Causing ovulation in women and stimulates the secretion ofprogesterone in women and testerone in men.
Prolactin stimulates the breast to develop and produce milk.
Ovary Produces estrogen and progresterone in woman
Testis Produces testosterone
Parathyroid gland Produces Parathyroid hormone
Thyroid hormone (T3,T4) TrIIodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine. tetralodothyronlne (T4) are secreted by the thyroid gland: control metabolic rate and regulate growth and development
Produces Parathyroid hormone Secreted by the parathyroid glands: Increases plasma calcium by stimulating osteoclastic activity. Increasing reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys. and by Increasing the absorption of dietary calcium
Adrenal medulla Secretes catecholamines (epinephrine) and small amounts of norepinephrine Stimulates the "flght-or-flight" response; Increases blood glucose Epinephrine Is also called adrenalin
Adrenal cortex cortisol A glucocorticoid that helps regulate glucose. fat. and protein metabolism;
Aldosterone A mineralocorticoid that causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium and water and to excrete potassium: helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
Sex hormones Especially the androgens (testosterone): helps develop the secondary sex
Insulin Secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans: helps regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates. proteins. and fats: lowers blood glucose
Glucagon Secreted by the alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans: raises blood glucose
Estrogens and progesterone Secreted by the ovaries
Testosterone Secreted primarily by the testesThe chief male androgen: stimulates the development of sperm and the secondary sex characteristics In the male
Thymoslns Stimulates the maturation of the T-Iymphocytes
Melatonin Secreted by the pineal gland and helps set the biorhythms
Acromegally s/s The enlargement bone of the hand, jaws, cheecks, forehead or nose.
Treatment for acromegally Cryosurgery or transphenoidal or removal of the tumor
Drugs for acromegally Parlodel and sandostin
Diet for acromegally Soft food
Oversecretion of GH before closure of ephiphyses Gigantism
Level of gigantism in the blood . Dx test for gigantism
Surgical removal or Irradiation of anterior pituitary Treatment for gigantism
Understanding and emotional support Nursing responsibility for Gigantism pt.
Too much ADH SIADH
s/s of SIADH Hypo Na <130 mEq/l/l, Water retention, eight gainConcentrated urine (n urine osmolality >1200 msom/l, specific gravity >1020, Muscle cramp, and weakness
Why no pheriperal edema on SIADH Because excess fluid accumulating in vascular system
What is Dx test for SIADH High Na, specific gravity > 1.032
What is medication for SIADH Declomicyn, Lythium Carb.
What treatment for SIADH Fluid rest and give Hypertonic SOL
Dibetes indsipidus Def. in ADH
s/s of Diabetes insipidus Extreemely large urination +/- 25-30 l per24 hr, polydipsia, dehydration and serious electrolite imbalance.
Dx test for diabetes insipidus specific gravity < 1.005
What is the diet for diabetes insipidus No caffein and no teeism
Treatment for diabetes insipidus Replacement of ADH by injecting or absorption of the hormone
what is cushing syndrome Too much cortisol in the blood (adrenal Hyperfunction)
s/s of cushing syndrome Buffalo hump, moon face, distention of abdominal, ecchy mosis, impotensy, osteo H B/P.
Treatment for cushing syndrome Radiation c cobalt, surgical
Causing effect for cushing syndrome Prolong used of glucocorticoid or corticotropin medication for chronic inflammatory disorder such as chronic obstruction pulmonary disease, chron,s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. also called iatrogenic.
Grave's disease a syndrome in which thyrotoxicosis is associated w/ diffuse goiter or autoimmune disease.
Hashimoto thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that destroy the essential enzym that is necessary for prod. of T3 & T4. X. Down syndrome and turner's syndrom
Cushing syndrome too much cortisol
Thyroid syndrome (blank)
diffuse toxic goiter (blank)
simple nontoxic goiter (blank)
Nodular goiter (blank)
chvostek sign (blank)
Trousseau's sign (blank)
Addison disease (blank)
Pheocromositoma (blank)
Hyperparathyroidism (blank)
Hypoparathyroidism (blank)
Hyperthyroidism (blank)
Hypothyroidism (blank)
Cretinism (blank)
s/s of myexedema hoarse and raspy voice, slow speech,lethargy, expressionless face,protruding toungue, coarse and sparse hair, weight gain and dry skin.
Created by: Marianib