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Federalism Vocab

Mr. Zmuda's AP gov class

federalism A constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and subnational governments, each of which enforces its own laws and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other.
unitary system Constitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national government; subnational governments have only those powers given to them by the national government
confederation Constitutional arrangement whereby the national government is created by and relies on subnational governments for its authority
home rule Power of local government to pass laws affecting local affairs, so long as those laws do not conflict with state or federal laws
intergovernmental relations Network of political, financial, and administrative relationships between units of the federal government and those of state and local governments
laboratories of democracy A reference to the ability of the states to experiment and innovate in public policy
delegated/enumerated powers Powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the national government
Necessary and Proper/Elastic/Implied Powers Clause Clause in Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to enact all laws that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out those responsibilities specifically delegated to it.
implied powers Powers not mentioned specifically in the Constitution as belonging to Congress but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated powers
National Supremacy Clause Clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution declaring the constitution and laws of the national government as "supreme laws of the land" superior to the constitutions and laws of the states
concurrent powers Powers exercised by both the national government and state governments in the American federal system
reserved powers Powers not granted to the national government or specifically denied to the states in the Constitution that are recognized by the Tenth Amendment as belonging to the state governments.
dual/layer cake federalism Early concept of federalism in which national and state powers were clearly distinguished and functionally separate
cooperative/marble cake federalism Model of federalism in which national, state, and local governments work together exercising common policy responsibilities
centralized federalism Model of federalism in which the national government assumes primary responsibility for determining national goals in all major policy areas and directs states and local government activity through conditions attached to money grants
new federalism Attempts to return power and responsibility to the states and reduce the role of the national government in domestic affairs
representational federalism Assertion that no constitutional division of power exists between the nation and the states but the states retain their constitutional role merely by selecting the president and members of Congress
grants-in-aid Payments of funds from the national government to state or local governments or from a state government to local governments for specific purposes
devolution Passing down of responsibilities from the national government to the states
preemption Total or partial federal assumption of power in a particular field, restricting the authority of the states
total preemption Federal government's assumption of all regulatory powers in a particular field
partial preemption Federal government's assumption of some regulatory powers in a particular field, with the stipulation that a state law on the same subject as a federal law is valid if it does not conflict with the federal law in the same area
standard partial preemption Form of partial preemption in which the states are permitted to regulate activities already regulated by the federal government if the state regulatory standards are at least as stringent as the federal government's
mandate Direct federal orders to state and local governments requiring them to perform a service or to obey federal laws in the performance of their functions
unfunded mandates Mandates that impose costs on state and local governments (and private industry) without reimbursement from the federal government
Created by: ezhoops701
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