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joshua m

ancient rome

QuestionAnswer
tribune Tribune was a title shared by elected officials in the Roman Republic. Tribunes had the power to convene the Plebeian Council and to act as its president, which also gave them the right to propose legislation before it
plebiean The plebs were the general body of free landowning Roman citizens (as distinguished from slaves) in Ancient Rome. They were distinct from the higher order of the patricians. A member of the plebs was known as a plebeian (Latin: plebeius).
patrician The term patrician (Latin: patricius, Greek: πατρίκιος) originally referred to a group of elite families in ancient Rome
consul Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire.
laws of the twelve tablets (tables) The Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum, or, informally, Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law
roman assembly The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch, and thus (theoretically at least) passed all legislation.
roman senate The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC).
veto veto,or in latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop a piece of legislation
republic A republic is a state under a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain supreme control over the government
dictator A dictator is a ruler (e.g. absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power (sometimes but not always with military control) but without hereditary ascension such as an absolute monarch.
etruscans Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci.[
romulus and remus Romulus and Remus are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder.
ax romana Arx is the Latin word for citadel. In the ancient city of Rome, the Arx, not always capitalized, was located on the northern spur of the Capitoline Hill, and is sometimes specified as the Arx Capitolina.
emperor An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
julius caesar Gaius Julius Caesar[2] (13 July 100 BC[3] – 15 March 44 BC)[4] was a Roman general and statesman. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
julius caesar In 60 BC, Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years.
augustus caesar Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
pompeii The city of Pompeii is a partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania
herculaneum Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows AD 79, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano, in the Italian region of Campania in the shadow of Mt. Vesuvius.
marcus aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus[notes 1] (26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169.
trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (18 September 53 – 9 August 117), commonly known as Trajan, was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica,[
hadrian Publius Aelius Hadrianus[1][2] (24 January 76 – 10 July 138), commonly known as Hadrian and after his apotheosis Divus Hadrianus, was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138.
nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus[1] (15 December 37 – 9 June 68),[2] born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, and commonly known as Nero, was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. He was the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
tiberius Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16, 42 BC – March 16, AD 37), born Tiberius Claudius Nero, was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla.
caligula Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), commonly known as Caligula and sometimes Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 to 41.
constantine Constantine (pronounced /ˈkɒnstəntaɪn/ or /ˈkɒnstəntiːn/; Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantînos) is a masculine given name and surname which is derived from the Latin name Constantinus[1
hannibal Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca[n 1] (248–183 or 182 BC)[n 2] was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician who is popularly credited as one of the most talented commanders in history.
carthage (carthaginians) Carthage (Latin: Carthago or Karthago, Ancient Greek: Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Arabic: قرطاج Qarṭāj‎, Berber: ⴽⴰⵔⵜⴰⵊⴻⵏ Kartajen, Etruscan: *Carθaza, Hebrew: קרתגו‎ kartago, from the Phoenician Qart-ḥadšat[1] meaning New City, implying it was a 'new Tyre
punic wars The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 to 146 BC.[1] At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place
gaul Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era,
vercengetorix Vercingetorix , in English) (c. 82 BC – 46 BC) was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars
romulus and remus Romulus and Remus are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder
attila the hun Attila (pronounced /ˈætɨlə/ or /əˈtɪlə/; 406–453), also known as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from Germany to the Ural River
pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey (/ˈpɒmpiː/) or Pompey the Great[1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2]) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic
crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (ca. 115 BC – 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who commanded the left wing of Sulla's army at the Battle of the Colline Gate,
inflation In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[1] When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services.
gladius Gladius (Latin: glădĭus) was the roman word for sword, and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Rome soldiers. Early ancient Roman swords were similar to those used by the Greeks.
scutum Scutum is a small constellation introduced in the seventeenth century. Its name is Latin for shield.
ballista The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra[1] and that from - βάλλω ballō, "throw"),[2] plural ballistae, was an ancient missile weapon which launched a large projectile at a distant target
triumvirate A triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men") is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir (pl. triumviri).
paul Paul the Apostle, also known as Paul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, a Jewish Roman citizen from Tarsus (modern Turkey) - also called Saul - and 1st-century AD Christian missionary and author of numerous letters of the New Testament of the Christian Bible (AD
judea Judea or Judæa (from the Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh "Tribe of Judah", Greek: Ιουδαία, Ioudaía; Latin: Iudaea) was the name of the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew
pointius pilate Pontius Pilate (pronounced /ˈpɒntʃəs ˈpaɪlət/; Latin: Pontius Pilātus; Greek: Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος, Pontios Pilātos) was the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, from AD 26–36
catacombs Catacombs are ancient, human-made subterranean passageways for burial or protection.[1] Any chamber used as a burial place can be described as a catacomb, although the word is most commonly associated with the Roman empire.[
diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus[notes 1] (c. 22 December 244[3] – 3 December 311),[4] commonly known as Diocletian, was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305
cohort group of subjects with a common defining characteristic — typically age group
pilum The pilum (plural pila) was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times.
roman senate The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC).
pliny ancient Roman nobleman, scientist and historian, author of Naturalis Historia, "Pliny's Natural History"
virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC) was a classical Roman poet, best known for three major works—the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the Aeneid—although several minor poems are also attributed to him.
livy Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people
seneca Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Seneca the Younger, son of Seneca the Elder, Roman philosopher and playwright, tutor and advisor of Nero
cassis Cassis (French pronunciation: [kasi, kasis]; Occitan: Cassís) is a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.
loric segmentata The lōrīca segmentāta (segmented plates) was a type of segmented armour almost exclusively used in the Roman Empire, but the Latin name was first used in the 16th century (the ancient form is unknown,
catapult A catapult is a device used to throw or hurl a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
groma the principal Roman surveying instrument
miliarium A milestone (from the Latin milliarium) is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile. They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median
cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was an ancient Greek[2][3] queen and the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
roman legion The Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription," from legere — "to choose") is a term that can apply both as a translation of legio
praetorian guard Praetorian Guard (Latin: Prætoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors
centurion A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων), also hekatontarch (ἑκατόνταρχος) in Greek sources, or, in Byzantine times, kentarch (κένταρχος) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC
crossing the rubicon according to the Oxford English Dictionary, as a technical term in air navigation to refer to the point on a flight at which, due to fuel consumption, a plane is no longer capable of returning to its airfield of original takeoff.
assassinate An assassination is "to murder (a usually prominent person) by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons."[1][2] An additional definition is
palatine A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times
fasces Fasces (pronounced /ˈfæsiːz/, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle"[1]) are a bundle of wooden sticks with an axe blade emerging from the center,
pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey (/ˈpɒmpiː/) or Pompey the Great[1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2]) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC),
crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (ca. 115 BC – 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who commanded the left wing of Sulla's army at the Battle of the Colline Gate
inflation In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[
diocletian s
cohort the riot police of Ancient Rome, also pressed into use as a military unit.
pilum s
roman senate s
milliarium A mile marker on the U.S. National Road giving distances from many places Slate milestone near Bangor, WalesA milestone (from the Latin milliarium) is one of a series of numbered marker
praetorian guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin: Prætoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors. The title was already used during the Roman Republic for the guards of Roman generals, at least since the rise to prominence of the Scipio family around 275 BC.
centurion A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων), also hekatontarch (ἑκατόνταρχος) in Greek sources, or, in Byzantine times, kentarch (κένταρχος) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
et tu brute s
scipio africanus s
pax romana Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman peace") was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.
appian way The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
aqueduct An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel (conduit) constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose.
colosseum The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.
pantheon now a Catholic church, once a temple to the gods of ancient Rome
oculus An Oculus or circular window is a feature of Classical architecture since the 16th century.
gladiators A gladiator (Latin: gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals
circus maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin for great or large circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome.
cuniculus diversionary water channels of ancient Italy
S.P.Q.R SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senatus Populusque Romanus ("The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official signature of the government.
rubicon river an ancient Latin name for a small river in Northern Italy
mercenary a foreign soldier who serves in an army only for pay
tiber river a major river in Italy; Romeis built on its banks
baths of caracalla The Baths of Caracalla (Italian: Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla.
londinium The city of London (Latin: Londinium) was established by the Romans around AD 43. It soon became the capital of Roman Britain and served as a major imperial commercial centre until its abandonment during the 5th century.
tyrrhenian sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (Italian: Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
adriatic sea The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges.
alps The Alps are one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west.
apennine mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy.
dictator a person in the ancient roman republic appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency, with all the powers of a king
christianity the christian religion, based on the life and teaching of jesus and on the christian holy book, the bible
martyr a person who chooses to die for a cause he or she believes in
epistle a letter; in the christian bible, letters written by disciples like paul to christian group
toga The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps twenty feet (6 metres) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic.
celts The Celts (pronounced /ˈkɛlts/ or /ˈsɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celtic) were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.
britain , a sovereign state in north western Europe Great Britain, the largest island in the British Isles
helvetia Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland, officially Confœderatio Helvetica,
inflation In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
denarii In the Roman currency system, the denarius (plural: denarii) was a small silver coin first minted in 211 BC.
visigoths The Visigoths (Latin: Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other.
ostrogoths The Ostrogoths (Latin: Ostrogothi or Austrogothi) were a branch of the Goths (the other branch being the Visigoths), an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in political events of the last decades of the Roman Empire.
vandals The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century, perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455.
latin Latin originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Although it is often considered a dead language, a small number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy can speak it fluently, and it continues to be taught in schools and universities.
cohort a form of governance with representation by groups present in the governed population
spartacus Spartacus was the most notable leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
seneca writer, philosopher, and statesman of ancient rome.
martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March 1, between 38 and 41 AD - between 102 and 104 AD), was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams.
province A province is a prepositional unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state
germania Germania was the Latin termfor a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine (inner Germania), which included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine.
messiah Messiah, is a term used in Judaism, Christianity and Islam for the redeemer figure expected in one form or another by each religion.
disciple A disciple is a follower and student of a mentor, teacher, or other wise figure
gospel A gospel is a written account that describes the life, death, and Resurrection of Jesus. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the Good News message of the New Testament.
epistle An epistle (pronounced /ɪˈpɪs.l/; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, 'letter') is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
Created by: Metivier