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Phys. Assess. Ch. 9

What is a general survey? a study of the whole person, covering the general health state and any obvious physical charecteristics
When does a general survey start? When you first encounter the person
Even as you introduce yourself and shake hands your? collecting data
What 4 areas should you consider when doing a general survey? physical appearance, body structure, mobility, and behavior
What is included in physical appearance? Age(appear their age?), sex (development), Skin color (color tone), Facial features (are they symetric with movement?)
What is A&O x3? Time, Place, Person, (Event)
What is included in body structure? Statue (height), nutrition (normal weight range), position (sits comforably), body build (Arm span, body length)
What is toddler lordosis? When a standing toddler has a normally protuberant abdomen
What is included in mobility? Gait, range of motion (movement is smooth and cordinated)
What is included in behavior? facial expression (eye contact, express appropriate respone) mood and effect (cooperative), Speech (articulation), Dress (clothing is app. to climate, and culture), Personal hygiene (clean and groomed?)
When getting weight you should? use a standardized balance or electric standing sale
When you have to weigh reguraly? pick same time and same type of clothing
To get height you? use a wall mounted device or a measuring pole
What is BMI? a practical marker of optimal weight for height and an indicator of obesity or protein calorie malnutrition
What is the waist to hip ratio? assesses body fat distribution as an indicator of health risk
What is android obesity? fat in the upper body (abdomen)
What is gynoid obesity? fat in the lower body (hips)
What is waist circumfrance be used for? alone can be used to predict greater health risk
What does cellular metabolism require? a stable core of 37.2 C
How does the body maintain a steady temperature? through a feedback mechanism
How is the feedback mechanism regulated? hypothalamus
What is a normal oral temp? 98.6
What is a normal temp influenced by? diurnal cycle (trough in morning, and peak in the evening), the menstruation cycle, exercise, age (adults lower)
The oral temp is? accurate and convenient
Why is oral temp accurate? oral sublingual site (rich blood supply)
What are the advantages of an electric thermometer? swift and accurate, safe, unbreakable, disposalbe
The axillary temp is? safe and accurate for young ones
When is the only reason to take a rectal temp? only when other routes are not practical
What is a tympanic membrane thermometer? is senses infrared emmisions of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
What are the advantages of tympanic thermometer? speed, convenience, safety, reduced risk of injury and infection, and noninvasiveness
What is the stroke volume? blood pumped with every beat
What is a pulse? the blood pressure felt against the artery
Start your pulse count with? 0
The second pulse felt is? 2
What do you assess about the pulse? rate, rhythm, force, and elasticity
What is the normal adult heart rate? 60-100 beats
Younger age causes heart rate? to be more rapid
Older age causes heart rate to be? more moderate
Females have a ________ heart rate than males? higher
What is bradycardia? a heart rate less than 60 BPM
What is tachycardia? over 100 BPM
The rhythm of the pulse normally has an even? tempo
What is sinus arrhythmia? the heart rate varies with the respiratory cycle, speeding up at the peak of inspiration and slowing to normal with expiration
What does a weak thready pulse reflets? decrease stroke volume
What does a full bounding pulse indicate? increase stroke volume
What is the three point scale for force of heart? 0 absent 1 weak 2 normal 3 full bounding
What is the normal elascity of arteries? springy, straight, resilient
What is a persons normal respirations like? relaxed, regular, automatic, and silent
Do not say that you are? counting respirations
Respiratory rates are usually how in children? more rapid
What is the constant ratio of pulse rate to repiratory rate? 4:1
What is blood pressure? the force of blood pushing against the side of its container, the vesel wall
What is the systolic pressure? is the maximum pressure felt on the artery during left ventricular contraction
What is the diastolic pressure? is the elestic recoil, or resting, pressure that the blood exerts constantly between each contraction
What is the pulse pressure? the difference between the systolic and diastolic and reflects the stroke volume
What is the mean artierial pressure? the pressure forcing blood into the tissues, averaged over the cardiac cycle
What affects blood pressure? age (adult-rise), gender (females-lower), race (black-higher)
What is diurnal rhythm? a daily cycle of a peak and a trough occures: the BP climbs to a high in later afternoon and early evening and then declines to an early morning low
How does weight affect BP? Higher is obese people
How does emotions effect BP? rises with fear, anger, and pain
What are the five factors in which BP is determined? CO, Peripheal vascular resistence, Volume of circulating blood, viscosity,and elasticity of vessel walls
Increased CO= increased pressure
Increased PV resistence= greater pressure
Increased volume= increased pressure
Increased viscosity (thickness)= greater pressure
Lower elasticity= lower pressure
What is BP measured with? stethoscope, sphygmomanometer
The bladder of a BP cuff should be around how much of a pt's arm? 40%
The length of a cuff should be? 80%
How many cuff sizes are there? 6
You should take how many BP readings? 2 seperated by 2 min
For each person you should verify BP? in both arms
The arm should be where during BP readings? heart level
When setting during BP reading where should the pt's feet be? flat on the floor
What is the auscultatory gap? period when korotkoff's sounds disappear during auscultation
The fifth korotkoff phase is used to define what? Diastolic pressure
You should take serial measurements of pulse and blood pressure when? you suspect volume depletion, when the person reports fainting, or if they are hypertensive
When you take blood pressures from a person sitting and then a person standing there is? a slight decrease
What is coaractation of the aorta? congenital form of narrowing
If BP in the arm is high you should? check theigh pressure
Theigh pressure is normally ________ than the arm? higher
What is normally higher when getting a theigh pressure? systolic (10-40 mg)
What should you asses with children? Physical appearance, body structure, mobility, behavior, and parental bonding
Were do you weigh an infant? platform type balance scale
When do you start using an upright scale? 2 or 3
How do you measure an infants length? horizontal measuring board
By 2 or 3 your should measure a child how? a standing platform scale
What is the best index of a child's general health? physical growth
Healthy childhood growth is? continuous but uneven
Black children _______ _____ than white? weigh less
How long do you measure head circumference? at birth and at each visit until 2 and then yearly till 6 years
What order should vitals be taken in infants? respiration, pulse, and temp
How long dose it usually take for glass thermometer? 3-5 min
What site do you use to take pulses in infants? apical
The cuff on an infant should? cover 2/3 of the arm and must completly incircle it
What is assessed with aging pt's? Physical appearance, posture, gait, weight, height (shorter)
In elderly what increase? respirations, and BP
What is a pulse oximeter? a noninvasive method to assess arterial oxygen satruation
What is a good oxygen saturation? 97-98%
What is the doppler ultrasonic flowmeter? pitch is higher-when distance is small Pitch lowers- as the distance increases
The doppler technique is used for? locating the peripheral pulse site
What should you do before usuing doppler technique? apply gel, turn on, touch to skin, pulsatile woushing sound indiactes artery, inflate cuff, deflate cough
What will keep BP under control? lose weight, no alcohol, regualr aerobic excercise, cut sodium intake, no smoking, reduce dietary saturated fat and cholesterol
Why are immigrants usually taller? better nutrition provided in the US and deceased interference with growth from infectios diseases during the formative years
What is hypopituitary dwarfism? deficiency in growth hormone
What is gigantism? excessive growth hormone
What is acromegaly? excessive growth hormone, overgrowth of bone in face, hands, and feet
What is achondroplastic dwarfism? Congenital skeletal malformation caused by genetic disorder is converting cartilage to bone
What is Marfan's syndrome? thin and tall, but arm length is longer than the body is tall
Created by: alicia.rennaker