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NutritionJB1

Nutrition at TTCK (pre)

QuestionAnswer
1. health promotion active involvement in behaviors or programs that advance positive well-being
1. nutrition the sum of the processes involved with the intake of nutrients as well as assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy; a foundation for life and health
1. nutrition science the body of science, developed through controlled research, that relates to the processes involved in nutrition - internationally, clinically, and in the community
1. dietetics management of diet and the use of food; the science concerned with the nutrition planning and preparation of foods.
1. registered dietitian (RD) a professional dietitian, accredited with an academic degree of undergraduate or graduate study program, who has passed required registration examinations administered by the American Dietetic Association
1. health a state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being; relative freedom from disease or disability
1. metabolism the sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for its functioning (products of the various reactions are called metabolites)
1. glycogen a polysaccharide, the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle tissue
1. kilocalorie, part 1 the general term calorie refers to a unit of heat measure and is used alone to designate the small calorie. the calorie used in nutrition science and the study of metabolism is the large calorie, or kilocalorie, to be more accurate and avoid the use of
1. kilocalorie, part 2 study of metabolism is the large calorie, or kilocalorie, to be more accurate and avoid the use of large numbers in calculations. A kilocalorie, or 1000 calories, is the measure of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1000g (1L) of water 1 degree C.
1. amino acids nitrogen-bearing compounds that form the structural units of protein. After digestion amino acids are available for synthesis of specific tissue proteins.
1. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) nutrient recommendations for each gender and age group that can be used for assessing and planning diets for healthy populations
1. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) recommended daily allowances of nutrients and energy intake for population groups according to age and sex, with defind weight and height
1. MyPyramid a visual pattern of the current basic five food groups (bread/cereal, vegetable, fruit, milk/cheese, meat/dry beans/egg), arranged in a pyramid shape to indicate proportionate amounts of daily food choices
2. saccharide chemical name for sugar molecules. May occur as single molecules in monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), two molecules in disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), or multiple molecules in polysaccharides (starch, dietary fiber, glycogen)
2. simple carbohydrates sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar (saccharide) units. A monosaccharaide is composed of one sugar unit; adisaccharide is composed of two sugar units
2. complex carbohydrates, part 1 large, complesx molecules of carbohydraes composed of many sugar units (polysaccharides). Complex forms of dietary carbohydrates are starch, which is digestible and provides a major energy source, and dietary fiber, which is indigestible
2. complex carbohydrates, part 2 Complex forms of deitary carbohydrates are starch, which is digestible and provides a majore energy source, and dietary fiber, which is indigestible (human beings lack the necessary enzymes) and thus provides important bulk in the diet.
2. chelator a ligand that binds to a metal to form a metal complex
2. sugar alcohols nutritive sweeteners that provide 2 to 3 kcal/g; examples include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Produced in food industry laboratories for use as sweeteners in candies, chewing gum, beverages, and other foods; excess consumption may result in diarrhea
3. lipids the chemical group name for organic substances of a fatty nature. The lipids include fats, oils, waxes, and other fat-related compounds such as cholesterol.
3. glycerides, part 1 chemical group name for fats; formed from the glycerol base with one, two, or three fatty acids attached to make monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, respectively. Glycerides are the principal constituents of adipose tissue
3. glycerides, part 2 the principal constituents of adipose tissue and are found in animal and vegetable fats and oils.
3. triglycerides chemical name for fats in the body or in food; compound of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol base
3. fatty acids the major structural components of fats
3. saturated state of being filled; state of fatty acid components of fats being filled in all their available carbon bonds with hydrogen, making the fat harder and more solid. Such solid food fats are generally from animal sources.
3. linoleic acid (omega-6) essential fatty acid consisting of 18 carbons and two double bonds; found in vegetable oils.
3. alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) essential fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and three double bonds; found in soybean, canola, and flaxseed oil.
3. lipoproteins, part 1 chemical complexes of fat and protein that serve as the major carriers of lipids in the plasma. They vary in density according to the size of the fat load being carried; the lower the density, the higher the fat load.
3. lipoproteins, part 2 The combination package with water-soluble protein makes possible the transport of non-water-soluble fatty substances in the water-based blood circulation.
3. cholesterol, part 1 a fat-related compound, a sterol, synthesized only in animal tissues; a normal contituent of bile and a principal constituent of gallstones.
3. cholesterol, part 2 In the body, cholesterol is mainly synthesized in the liver. In the diet, it is found primarily in animal food sources.
3. adipose fat present in cells of adipose (fatty) tissue.
3. bile a fluid secreted by the liver and transported to the gallbladder for concentration and storage; it is released into the duodenum with the entry of fat to facilitate enzymatic fat digestion by acting as an emulsifying agent.
3. emulsifierm part 1 an agent that breaks down large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles; the action is chiefly accomplished in the intestine by bile acids, which lower the surface tension of the fat particles, breaking the fat
3. emulsifier, part 2 breaking the fat into many smaller droplets and thus greatly increasing the surface area of fat and facilitating contact with the fat-digesting enzymes.
3. micelles packages of free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts. The non-water-soluble fat particles are found in the middle of the package, whereas the water-soluble part faces outward and allows for the absorptioin of fat into the intestinal mucosal cell.
3. chylomicron lipoprotein formed in the intestinal cell composed of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein. Allosw for absoprtion of fat into the lymphatic circulatory system before entering the blood circulation.
4. amino acids nitrogen-bearing compounds that form the structural units of protein. When digested, the various food proteins yield their constituent amino acids, which are then available for use by the cells to synthesize specific tissue proteins.
4. indispensable amino acids nine amino acids that must be obtained fromthe diet because the body does not make adequate amounts to support body needs
4. dispensable amino acids five amino acids that the body can synthesize from other amino acids supplied through the diet and thus do not have to be consumed on a daily basis
4. conditionally indispensable amino acids six amino acids that normally are considered dispensable amino acids because the body can make them. However, under certain circumstances such as illness, the body cannot make them in high enough quantities and they become indispensable in the diet.
4. proenzyme an inactive precursor (forerunner substance from which another substance is made) converted to the active enzyme by the action of an acid, another enzyme, or other means.
4. zymogen an inactive enzyme precursor
4. pepsin the main gastric enzyme specific for proteins. Pepsin begins breaking large protein molecules into shorter chain polypeptides; gastric hydrochloric acid is necessary to activate
4. rennin milk-curdling enzyme of the gastric juice of human infants and young animals such as calves.
4. trypsin a protein-splitting enzyme secreted as the inactive proenzyme trypsinogen in the pancreas that is activated and acts in the small intestine to reduce proteins to shorter chain polypeptides and dipeptides
4. enterokinase an enzyme produced and secreted in the duodenum in response to food entering the small intestine; activates trypsinogen to its active form, trypsin
4. chymotrypsin a protein-splitting enzyme secreted as the inactive proenzyme chymotrypsinogen in the pancreas that is activated and acts in the small intestine to continue breaking down proteins into shorter chain polypeptides and dipeptides
4. carboxypeptidase, part 1 specific protein-splitting enzyme secreted as the inactive proenzyme procarboxypeptidase in the pancreas that is activaated by typsin in the small intestine to break off the acid (carboxyl) end of the peptide chain
4. carboxypeptidase, part 2 producing smaller chained peptides and free amino acids
4. aminopeptidase specific protein-splitting enzyme secretd by small glands in the walls of the small intestine that breaks off the nitrogen-containing amino (-NH2) end of the peptide chain, producing smaller chained peptides and free amino acids
4. dipeptidase specific final enzyme in the protein-splitting system that produces the last two free amino acids
Created by: jennifer37918