Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

USMLE cancer stag

MC type of colon cancer and risk factors adeno; >50, polyps, IBD (esp UC), FMH, high fat/low fiber
grading colon cancer Dukes: A=mucosa, B=through musoca, C=regional LN, D=mets
MC type of liver cancer and risk factors hepatocell; smoking, cirrhosis, hemochromo, Wilson, AAT, glycogen storage dz I, schisto, chemicals (VAT=aflatoxin, vinyl Cl, thorotrast)
MC type of GB cancer and risk factors adeno; assoc w gallstones, cholecystenteric fistula, porcelin GB
MC type of cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct) cancer and risk factors adeno of prox bile duct; 4Cs: 1ry sclerosing cholangitis (MC), UC, choledochal cysts, clonorchus infxn in Hong Kong
risk factors pancreatic cancer inSPECt the Death Order: smoking, heavy EtOH, chronic pancreatitis, DM, hi fat/obesity, chemicals (benzidine dyes, azo dyes), CDKN2A mutation (familial melanoma)
risk factors for squa cell eso cancer smoking, EtOH, nitrosamines, betel nuts, achlasia, Plummer-Vinson
risk factors for adeno eso cancer GERD, Barretts
grading eso cancer I=lamina propria or submucosa, II=muscul propria or adventitia, IIb=muscul propria + regional LN, III=adventi+region LN or local invasion, IV=mets
MC type of gastric cancer and risk factors GAP in the HAMPer: Gastritis, H Pylori, Salts/nitrites/smoked foods, Pernicious anemia, Menetrier, antrectomy, blood type A
grading Hodgkins Ann Arbor: I=single LN, II=2 LN same side diaphragm, III=both sides diaphragm, IV=extralymph
grading CLL 0=lymphocyt, 1=lymphocyt + LAD, 2=lymphocyt + splenomegal, 3=lymphocyt + anemia, 4=lymphocyt + decrsd plts
MC type of thyroid cancer, risk factor generally for thyroid cancer papillary; Risk factors for papillary: radiation, Cowdens, Gardners; MENII,III at risk for medullary
MC type prostate cancer, risk factors adeno; AGE, AA, high fat, fam hx, herbicies/pesticides
grading prostate cancer A=nonpalp,B=palp within prostate, C=beyond prostate, D=mets
MC type bladder cancer, risk factors transitional; smoking, dyes (aniline, azo), radiation, coffee, sweeteners, cyclophosphamide, schistosomiasis haemo (sq cell)
grading bladder cancer 0=mucosa, A=lamina propria, B=mscl invasion, C=perivesicular fat, D=mets to LN
tx difft stages prostate cancer A,B=radical prostatectomy; C=radiation + anti-androgen; D=anti-androgen
tx difft stages bladder cancer 0=intravesicular chemo, A=resxn (but recur); B,C=cystectomy and LN, D=cystectomy and chemo
MC type renal cancer, risk factors renal cell; smoking, phenacetin analgesics, PCKD, VHL, Hg&Cd exposure
MC type of testicular cancer, general risk factors germ cell seminoma; cryptorchidism, Klinefelter
grading testicular cancer A=testicle, cord; B=LN below diaphragm; C=distant mets
tx difft stages testicular cancer orchiotomy, seminoma=also f/u radiation; nonseminoma=also +/- chemo
MC type penile cancer, risk factors SCC; HSV, HPV18, (circumcision may protect)
MC type skin cancer, risk factor basal cell; sun, coal tar, arsenic, familial melanoma/dysp nevi, BC nevus syn, albinism, Xeroderma pigmentosum, III=distant met
MC type lung cancer, general risk factors NSCLC adeno; smoking, asbestosis, COPD
risk factors breast cancer BRAC1,2; prolonged unopposed estrogen (early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, late age 1st pregnancy, >40yo), high fat intake, obesity
tx breast ca Lumpectomy if <4cm, simple mastectomy if widespread DCIS or LCIS; modified radial mastectomy (where also remove breast and axillary nodes) for larger tumors
risk factors ovarian ca BRCAI gene predisposes, FMH, grtr
staging ovarian ca I limited to ovaries, II beyond ovaries, (uterus, tubes, + pelvic cytology), III within pelvis, (peritoneal mets or LN), IV distant mets, involves bladder or rectum
tx ovarian ca cytoreductive debulking surgery: TAH-BSO, omentectomy, bowel resxn as nec. Given post op chemo (carboplatin&Taxol)
risk factors cervical ca early age of coitus, mltpl sex partners, smoking, immunosuppress, HPV16,18, OCP>10yrs
staging cervical ca 0=CIS (Within epithelium), I=within cervix (MC), Ia1=depth 3mm (minimally invasive), Ia2=depth >3mmIb=depth >5mm, IIa=beyond cervix, upper 2/3 vagina, IIb=parametria involved, III=pelvic wall or 1/3 vagina, IV=bladder, rectum, mets
tx cervical ca IA1=simple hysterectomy, IA2=modified radical hysterectomy w upper 1/3 vagina, IB/IIa=radial hysterectomy+LN dissection OR radiation; IIb,III,IV=radiation. Adjuvant given as nec
when adjuvant tx given for cervical ca after surgical tx Adjuvant (radiation and chemo) given if: met to LN, tumor>4cm, poorly diffted lesion, + marg
risk factors endometrial ca nulliparity, late menopause, chronic anovulation (ie PCOS); DM, HTN, obesity
staging endometrial ca I=remains in uterus (endometrium and myometrium), II=cervical stroma, (endocervical glands, cervical stroma), III=serosa, adenxa, positive cytology, vagina, pelvic or para-aortic nodes, IV=bladder, rectum, distant mets [MC lungs]
tx endometrial ca Surgical: total abdominal hysterectomy and bilater salping (TAH-BSO), pelvic and para-aortic LN, peritoneal washings; Radiation post op as nec
when adjuvant tx given endometrial ca Radiation: based on post-op findings if have poor px get radiation: met to LN, >50% myometrium, positive surgical margins, poorly difftd histology Chemo: for metastatic dz
risk factors vulvar ca obesity, HTN, HPV16,18
staging vulvar ca Stage 0 (CIS): basement membrane intact, Stage I: <2cm, nodes not palpable, Stage II: >2cm, confined to vulva, Stage III: spread to lower urethra, vagina or anus, unilateral nodes, Stage IV: upper urethra, bladder or rectum bilateral nodes, distant mets
tx vulvar ca <2cm and invasion <1mm can have local excision, if >1mm need LN dissection
Created by: ehstephns
Popular Midwifery sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards