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Lecture Unit 1

Four Types of Tissue 1. Connective tissue (connect) 2. Muscle tissue (contract) 3. Epithelial tissue (cover) 4. Nervous tissue (conduct) (CMEN)
Functions of Epithelial Tissue Forms a barrier between 2 compartments. Functions: physical protection, selective permeability, secretion, sensation. Covers & Lines stuff. Ex: Outermost layer of skin.
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue Cellularity: minimal ECF. Polarity: apical and basal layers. Attachment: Basal bound to basement membrane. Avascular: nutrients from underlying CT. Innervation: Has nerve endings. Regeneration: High rate via mitosis.
Epithelial Tight Junctions Continuous sealed plasma membranes near apical surface.
Epithelial Adhering Junctions Typically located deep to tight junctions.
Epithelial Desmosomes Provides resistance at a single stress point. Scattered. (Looks like a bad sewing job).
Epithelial Gap Junctions Direct passageway for small molecules to travel between cells.
Epithelial first name Number of cell layers: Simple, Stratified, or pseudostratified.
Epithelial second name Shape of cells: Squamous (flat), Cuboidal (cubed/square), Columnar (tall, skinny).
Simple Squamous Epithelium Functions: Diffusion, Filtration. Locations: Lung air sacs (alveoli), lining of blood vessels, serous membranes. Gas exchange; weak.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Functions: Absorption, Secretion.
Simple Columnar Epithelium Functions: Absorption, Secretion, Movement-created by cillia on apical surface. Cillia move whatever is around the cell. Some are ciliated and some aren't.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Function: Protection. Location: Lining of the oral cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Vagina, Anus, Epidermis of skin (keratinized).
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Functions: Protection, Movement.
Transitional Epithelium Functions: Distention and relaxation of urinary structures. Locations: Ureters, bladder, urethra.
Glands Made up of epithelial tissue. Exocrine: ducts secrete material onto an epithelial surface. Endocrine: ductless. Cells secrete products into interstitial fluid and bloodstream.
Types of Exocrine glands. Merocrine, Holocrine, Apocrine (Know pictures).
Merocrine Glands Secrete via vesicles. Lacrimal, salivary, gastric, pancreatic, and ECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS-almost all water.
Holocrine Glands Entire cell disintegrates. Sebaceous glands (oil glands ex: skin, hair).
Apocrine glands Secrete by cell decapitation. Mammary and apocrine sweat glands. breasts, armpits & anogenital region. Thicker sweat w/ protein and fat-food for bacteria.
Types of Connective Tissue Common embryonic origin: mesenchyme. 1. Connective tissue proper 2. Cartilage 3. Bone 4. Blood
Functions of Connective Tissue Physical protection, support and structural framework, Binding of structures, Storage of calcium and fat, Transport of nutrients, hormones, and gasses, Immune protection.
Characteristics of Connective Tissue Cells: not in direct contact with each other. Float in ECM. Extracellular Matrix: Ground substance consists of proteins, carbohydrates, and water. Protein fibers offer strength and support. Collagen, elastic, and reticular.
Collagen Long, skinny, strong. Can tear.
Elastic Rubberband like. Not very strong. Give flexibility to a tissue.
Reticular Branched protein. In between.
Connective Tissue Proper (2 subsections) 1. Loose CT 2. Dense CT
Loose Connective Tissue Areolar: Surrounding vessels, nerves, etc. Sponge like. Adipose: subcutaneous layer, surrounding organs. fat. Reticular: inside lymphatic organs. Branched support, holds organs together.
Dense Connective Tissue Regular: Tendons, ligaments. Strong in 1 direction, weak in another. parallel lines. Irregular: dermis of skin. Strong in every direction. Elastic: Walls of large arteries. support, flexibility.
Scurvy Caused by vitamin C deficiency. Normal collagen fibers can't form. Weakens gums, teeth, bones, & internal mucosa. Wounds and fractures don't heal well. Prevalent among sailors.
Marfan Syndrome Genetic. Abnormal gene on chromosome 15. Abnormalities in fibrillin, collagen, & elastin. Causes skeletal, vision, cardio, and connective tissue abnormalities. Tall & thin w/ long legs, arms, fingers & toes. Die by age 50 due to heart weakness. Elastic.
Gangrene Caused by lack of blood flow, mechanical injury, bacterial infection, or diabetes. Dry, wet: covered in bodily fluids, gas: deep in muscle, creates bubbles.
Created by: punkaloo