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Science midterm

QuestionAnswer
What is the first step in soil formation? Break down bedrock
What is fuel? A substance that provides a form of energy---such as HEAT, LIGHT, ELECTRICITY OR MOTION
How does combustion work? The process of burning a fuel.
What are the three main fossel fuels? COAL, OIL, AND NATURAL GAS
What does it mean when a fuel is considered "nonrenewable"? It cannot be used again.
What is the most plentiful fossil fuel in the USA? COAL
Which fossil fuel is the cleanest? Natural Gas
Dfine and give an example of a biomass fuel? Animal waste
Define geothermal energy. Energy from the Earth
Define Abrasion The grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity.
Describe Ice Wedging. Is a process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks then freezes and then expands.
Define chemical weathering? The process that breaks down rock through chemical change.
What agent chemical weathers iron rich rocks and turns them reddish brown? OXYGEN
What kind of climate has the fastest weathering? Hot Weather Climates
What 2 things determine the rate of weathering? Rock type, and climate.
Define soil. What is it comprised of? Loose weathered matted material on the Earth's surface in which plants can grow' comprised of rock particals, air, water, minerals, and humus.
What is Bedrock? The solid layer of rock beneath the surface.
What is litter? Loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems from plants.
What is Coal formed from? Ancient Plant Remains
What is Oil formed from? The remains of small ORGANISMS, ALGAE, and PROTISTS that lived in oceans and shallow seas 100s of million of years ago.
In a neclearpower plant what is used to turn water into steam? URANIUM bundle
What is energy conservation? Give examples Refers to efforts to reduce energy consumptiom. Ex--Ride your bike, Walk, Carpool, Get good lightbulbs, turn lights off etc.
How do living organisms affect soil? Mix up the soil and make spaces in it for air and water.
What are decomposers? Organisms that eat dead animals.
Why is soil valuable? Every living thing depends on soil to live in or for people to grow crops.
How long did it take the prarie soils in the US to form? 1000s of years.
What 2 things that can cause the loss of soil? WATER and WIND
What caused the Dust Bowl? Plowing removed gras from the Great Plains and exposed the soil.
What animal mixes up the humus in the soil? Earth worms and burrowing Mammals
What does the texture of the soil depend on? Plant Growth
What layer of soil is topsoil found in? A Horizon
Define erosion Is the movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
What is Tributary? A stream that flows into a larger stream.
Describe what a an alluvial fanis? A wide sloping deposite of sediment formed where a stream leaves a moutain range.
What process forms Deltas? Sediment deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
What are the 2 types of glaciers? Valley and Continental Glaciers.
Name the rock most fossils are found in? Sedimentary
Understand the "Law of Superposition"? States that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
What is the age of the oldest fossils found? 3.5 Billion years
What ERA were most dinosaurs in abundance? Mesozoic ERA
The history of the earth is conveyed via this "Time Scale". Geologic Time Scale
What metals is the Earths inner core theorized to be made of? Iron and Nickel
Where on earth does a hot spot exist? In the middle of the plate.
Know the landforms for both oceanic and continental crust. Mountains, Volcanoes, Rifts
What type of Earth plates collide? Convergent
What type of Earth plates separate? Divergent
How does the interior magma of Earth become molten hot? It is a mixture of gases, water and mixture of rocks under pressure
Know the predictability of earthquakes. Unknown can't predict.
How is a Tsunami produced? By an earthquake
What is liquefaction as a result of an earthquake? When seimic waves change solid soil to liquid mud within seconds
Explain how a seismograph works? Converts ground movements into a signal that can be recorded and printed
State the name Dr. Wegener gave to his supercontinent? Pangea
When does magma become lava? When it erupts out of the valcano
Describe the Igneous rock called Basalt? Dark, Dense, igneous rock with a fine texture found in the oceanic crust.
Explain the recycling process of the oceanic crust (sea floor). Magma erupts through the weak zones of the crust on the ridges to create new oceanic crust
ID the deepest places on Earth? Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean 11,033 Meters
What does a true rock consist of? Two or more minerals
Know the differences between valcanoes? Shield Valcanoes---thin layers of lava pour out of vent and harden on top of previou layer. Cinder Cone Valcanoes---a steep cone shaped hill or mountain. Composite Valcanoe---lava flowsalternate with explosive eruptions of ash,cinder, or bombs.
How long do earthquakes last? 30 seconds to 1 minute
Explain the process for predicting volcanic eruptions? Geologist use tiltmeters, laser-ranging devices and other tools monitor the magnetic field, check temperature of water in chamber and check water level.
How can water be both a chemical and physical rock weathering agent?
Desribe what a geologic spit is. A beach formed by long shore drift that projects like a finger out into the water.
How are fossils sorted and organized? Shape
State how long modern humans have occupied time in Earth's history. Less than 1%
Why does the fossil record lack good representation by insect species? They don't have hard parts
What does a geologic map show? Rock type and age
Which Igneous rock is an intrusive? Granite
What causes a valcano to occur? Anytime magma makes it to the surface
How does an earthquake begin? Earthquakes occur at the margins of tectonic plates where one plate passes another or where two plates collide causing movement of faults.
State the Earth's four primary geologic layers. Crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core
State the primary landforms found on Earth. Plain, Plateau, Isthmus, and Peninsula
What is the largest mountain range found on Earth called? Mid Ocean Ridge
Know the density differences between oceanic and continental crust. Oceanic crust is denser
Which crust is thinner, Oceanic or Continental? Oceanic
Know how convection currents as a means of heat transfer work. Convection
Explain the type of boundary at the Mid-Oceanic Ridge? Divergent
What type of fault boundary is California's San Andreas? Transform
Describe what a geologic "Hot Spot" is and does. Location on Earth's surface that has experienced active volcanoes for a long time.
Wind energy is an indirect form of what other renewable energy? Solar energy
What is the most widely used renewable energy? Hydro electric
What is the size and density difference between oceanic and continental crust? The oceanic crust is more dense than the continental crust.
How does Earth's mantle differ from it's crust? The mantle is a solid layer of hot rock that behaves plasticly and the crust is a layer of rock that forms the Earth's outer skin.
Explain the difference between the Earth's inner and outer cores. The inner core is solid and the outer core is liquid.
ID the method of heat transfer responsible for moving Earth's plates. Covection Currents
Where is the new Earth crust added as it pertains to plate boundaries? Mid-Ocean Ridge....Divergent
Describe and name the plate boundaries which slide past one another. Transform
Know the difference between earthquake focus and epicenter. The focus is the point beneath where the rock breaks under stress and epicenter is the point on earths surface directly above and eartquake focus.
What does a sea floor earthquake have the potential to produce? Tsunami
List the evidence Wegener used to support his theory. Landforms, fossils and climate
Why did scientist reject his Wegener's theory? Beacuse he couldn't prove how or why continents moved
Name the fault boundary type of the San Andreas, CA Transform
What plate boundary allows for new lithosphere to be added? Divergent
Name the molten rock located inside Earth. Outer core
How fast does the Earth's lithosphere plates move? Move in constant slow motion.
What is the size and density difference between oceanic and continental crust? Rhw oceanic crust is more dense than the continental crust.
How does the earth's mantle differ from its crust? The mantle is a layer of hot rock that behave plasticly and the crust is a layer of rock that forms the earths outer skin.
Explain the difference between the earths inner and outer core? The inner core is solid and outer core is liquid.
ID the method of heat transfer responsible for moving Earth's plates. Convection currents
Where is the new Earth's crust added as it pertains to plate boundaries? Divergent Mid-Ocean Ridge
Describe and name the plate boundaries which slide past one another. Transform
Know the difference between earthquake focus and epicenter. The focus is the point beneath where rock breaks under stress and epicenter is the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus.
Describe and name the plate boundaries which slide past one another. Transform
Know the difference between earthquake focus and epicenter. The focus is the point beneath where rock breaks under stress and epicenter is the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus.
What does a seafloor earthquake have the potential to produce? Tsunamis
Name the theory Dr. Wegener gave to horizontal crust movement. The theory of continental drift.
List the evidence Wegener used to support his theory. Landforms, fossils, and climate
Why did scientists reject Wegener's theory? Because he could not prove how or why.
Name the fault boundary type of the San Andreas, CA. Transform
What plate boundary allows for new lithosphere to be added? Divergent
Name the molten rock located inside the Earth. Outercore
How fast does Earth's lithosphere plates move? In constant slow motion 5 centimeters per year.
Explain the "Law of Superposition", and how it relates to the Grand Canyon? States that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
What is the age of Earth's oldest known fossil. 3.5 billion years old
Describe the definition of a true fossil. Are the preserved remains or traces of living things.
Where are fossils primarily found (rock type)? Sedimentary
What is the purpose of Earth's "Geologic Timescale"? It shows a record of lifeforms and geologic events in Earth's history.
How is the abslute age of rock determined? How the number of years since the rock was formed.
What is carbon dating using c-14 used for geology? Used in dating materials from plants and animals that lived upto 50,000 years ago.
Explain the purpose and definition of an index fossil. Help geologist match rock layers and Index fossil are fossils that are widely distributed organisms that lived only one short period.
What are examples of "preserved remains fossils"? Animal tar pit, amber or freezing.
How many Earth mass extinctions have been recorded in geo time? 5
Know the function and purpose of the rock cycle. Rock cycle is a process on Earth's surface and inside planet that slowly changes rocks from 1 kind to another.
Describe the difference yet close relationship of the continental drift, sea floor spreading, and plate tectonic theories.
Know how the force of gravity works with water towards weathering, erosion, and deposition (W.E.D).
How can natural geologic forces be botth destructive and constructive? Volcanoes form new land and also can destroy built up cities.
What rock group is considered to be the primary of the three? Igneous
ID the rock that is an intrusive, igneous. Granite
Why are limestone and coal considered not to be true rocks? Coal is fossil fuel made from ancient plant remains, limestone is mainly made of minerals and some is pure calcite
What is a geological "non-conformity"? ontact between 2 rock units in which upper rock is much younger then the lower rock.
What is the term for the bending of light, sound, and other wave energy? Refraction
Why are physical models constructed? To represent something
What seimic wave is the fastest? P waves
Name the type of model that first exists as a thought. Conceptual Model
Know which seismic waves that can travel through liquids. P Waves
Name an example of a speckled, intrusive, Igneous rock. Granite
Name an example of a course, granular, sedimentaryrock. Sandstone
What is a metamophosed limestone called? Marble
How are seiments carried by a river? The rivers load
What kind of natural force creates Deltas? Deposition, Constructive
Describe what happens to a headland. Headland is a small area of land that extends out into a body of water which erodes over time
State the timescale based upon fossil evidence only. Geologic
Explain the difference between a body and a cast fossil. The cast is a copy of a shape of an organism.
In the Law of Superposition, where is the youngest rock located? At the Top
What king of fossil is a prehistoric worm burrow called? Trace Fossil
Know what an "Ecological Niche" is. Relationship position of a species in its ecosystem to each other
Describe a "tool" for correlating world wide rock strata. Fossil Markers
Know the definition of a species. A group of organisms capable of involving and producing fertile offspring.
Where, relative to crust, do most earthquakes occur? Techtonic plates
What is the name of re-melted rock? Lava
How does a rock differ from a mineral? Rock differ due to texture and small particles of minerals or other rocks that make up a rock
Describe what a geologic map shows. It shows geologic features inclluding rocks and faults
Describe how water can cause physical weathering. Abraision and ice wedging
What type of physical weathering is used to make stone jewelery? Abraision
Where and how does a Delta form? As river flows picks up sediment and carries sediment to the ocean where sediment is deposited and over time a delta forms.
Explain the dynamics of glacial movement.
State the position of oldest to youngest layers of sedimentary rock. Oldest-Bottom, Youngest-Top
Name the rock most fossils are found in. Sedimentary
What natural conditions would help make and preserve a fossil? Rapid Burial
ID a footprinf fossil type. Dinosaur Footprint
What are the characteristice of an index fossil? Wide spread and short lived
What king of rock would you expect to find a coral fossils in? Sedimentary rock /limestone
What primary element is used to determine "absolute age" of rock? Carbom 14
Created by: jitters2