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DIT 2009 WK 8

Q&A from DIT emailed questions WK 8

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of the nucleus ambigous? Visceral sensory information (eg – taste, baroreceptors, gut distention) VII, IX, I
What is the function of the nucleus of the solitary tract? Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus (eg-swallowing, palate elevation) IX, X, XI
What is the function of the dorsal motor nucleus? Sends autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers to heart, lungs, and upper GI
Site of action of thiazide diuretics? Early distal convoluted tubule
Site of action of loop diuretics? Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Site of action of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics? PCT
Site of action of an osmotic diuretic? PCT, CT, and Loop
Site of action of potassium sparing diuretic? Collecting tubule
Site of action of ADH antagonist diuretic? Collecting duct
What diagnostic test allows you to distinguish between primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn’s syndrome) and secondary hyperaldosteronism? Plasma renin: Low in primary, high in secondary
Which diuretic is often used in the treatment of hyperaldosteronism? Spironolactone
Centrally acting alpha-2 agonist is commonly used to treat hypertension Sympathoplegics – clonidine, alpha-methyldopa
Examples of encapsulated bacteria Strep pneumo, Neisseria meningitides, HiB, Klebsiella pneumoniae
Test used to detect encapsulated bacteria Quellung +
Time frame one would expect to see delirium tremens in an alcoholic? Peak 2-5 days after last drink
Manifestations of delirium tremens In order: autonomic system hyperactivity (tachycardia, tremors, anxiety), psychotic symptoms ( hallucinations, delusions), confusion
Describe how ammonium is shuttled out of muscle tissue to create urea in the liver In muscle: Pyruvate + Glutamate -> Alanine (NH3) gets transported to the Liver where: Alanine + alpha-KG -> Glutamate (NH3) -> Urea (NH3)
Main function of vitamin C Facilitate irion absorption by keeping iron in Fe2+ reduced state, necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis, necessary for dopamine B-hydroxylase, which converts dopamine to NE
MOA of zileuton 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor, blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
MOA of zafirlukast blocks leukotriene receptors
Which branchial pouch gives rise to middle ear cavity and Eustachian tube? 1st Pouch
Which branchial pouch gives rise to superior parathyroids? 4th Pouch
Which branchial pouch gives rise to inferior parathyroids? 3rd Pouch
Which branchial pouch gives rise to thymus? 3rd Pouch
Which branchial pouch gives rise to mastoid air cells? 1st Pouch
Which branchial pouch gives rise to epithelial lining of palatine tonsils? 2nd Pouch
Substance used to close a patent ductus arteriosus? Idomethacin
Substance used to keep a patent ductus arteriosus open? PGE
When might one want to keep a PDA open? Transposition of Great Vessels
What is internuclear opthalmoplegia? Lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus -> medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze. Nystagmus in abducting eye. Convergence is normal. Syndrome seein in many pts w/ MS
diuretic is used to lower intracranial pressure Mannitol
contraindications for mannitol Contraindicated in anuria and CHF
the R’s of Rifampin Revs up microsomal p450, Red-orange secretions, RNA polymerase inhibitor, Rapid resistance if used alone
antifungal drug used for "swish and swallow" Nystatin
antifungal drug that is nephrotoxic Amphotericin B
antifungal drug that deposits in keratin-containing tissues Griseofulvin
antifungal drug used for cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS Fluconazole
antifungal drug that is teratogenic and carcinogenic Griseofulvin
Which complement protein is an opsonin? C3b
Which complement protein aids in neutrophil chemotaxis? C5a
Which complement proteins form the membrane attack complex? C5B-C9
What might one see under a light microscope that would lead you to suspect lead poisoning as a cause of microcytic, hypochromic anemia? erythrocyte basophilic stippling
Which two calcium channel blockers work primarily on the heart? Verapimil and Diltiazem
Type of calcium blocker that works on vascular smooth muscle? Non-cardio specific: Nifedipine
Most common causes of seizures in children? genetic, infection (febrile), trauma, congenital, metabolic
MCC of seizures in adults? tumors, trauma, stroke, infection
MCC of seizures in elderly? stroke, tumor, trauma, metabolic, infection
Created by: snezya24