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Nutrition Ch. 3

Quiz Tues. 1-17!!!

What is the preferred energy source for many of the body's functions? Carbohydrates
People who wish to lose weight should do what? be physically active, pay attention to portion size, balance diet
What are carbs? Energy nutrients composed of monosaccharides
What are monosaccharides? single unit sugar
What are disacchardies? Long chains of monosaccharide units arranges as starch, glycogen or fiber
What is fructose? Fruit sugar, monosaccharide
What is homeostasis? The maintenance of constant inter conditions
What are polysaccharides? compounds composed of chains of monosacchardies units
What are 3 monosaccharides important in nutrition? glucose, fructose and galactose
What used glucose for energy? Brain and NS
What does insulin do? moves glucose from the blood into the cells
What does glucagon do? brings glucose out of storage when blood glucose falls
What is fructose in? fruit, honey and sap
What is Galactose? Milk sugar
What are important disacchardies? maltose, sucrose and lactose
What is sucrose? White sugar (glucose + Fructose)
What is Lactose? Carb. of milk, (glucose + galactose)
What is Maltose? Glucose + Glucose, produced when starch breaks down
Polysaccharides are composed mostly of what? GLUCOSE
What polysaccharides are important in nutrition? Starch, glycogen and fibers
What is Glycogen? Storage form of energy for humans and animals, allllll glucose
Where is glycogen found? Meat
The human body stores much of it glucose as? Glycogen in the liver and muscles
What is the first organ to respond after blood glucose rises? Pancreas
Muscle and liver cells use excess glucose to build what? glycogen
The muscles hoard how much of the body's total glycogen? 2/3
What is starch? long, straight, or branched chain of hundreds or thousands of glucose units linked together
When someone eats starch what does the body do? Splits the starch into glucose units
What foods contain starch? grains, and legumes
What is the third major source of starch? potatoes and yams (Root vegies)
What are dietary fibers? The structural parts of plants (vegies, fruits, whole grains, and legumes )
Most dietary fibers are? polysaccharides
Dietary fibers do not provide much what to the body? Energy
What is the main component in plant cell walls? Cellulose
What are pectins abundant in? Vegies and fruits (thicken jelly)
What are pectins in? Cereal fibers
What are lignins? tough woody parts of plants
What are resistant starches? starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
What is resistant starch in? foods? milled grains, legumes, raw potatoes, and unripe bananas
Resistant starch may support what? healthy colon
Fibers are divided into what two catagories? Soluble and insoluble
What are soluble fibers? They dissolve in water and form gels that are easily digested in bacteria in large intestine
What are insoluble fibers? do not dissolve and do not form gels and are less readily fermented (easily eliminated)
What are storage forms of glucose? glycogen and starch
T or F: dietary fibers can be broken down by human digestive system and provide lots of energy F
What foods are fiber rich carbs? vegies, whole grain, legumes and fruits
What are naturally occurring sugars? sugars that are not added to a food but are present as its original constituents
What are added sugars? sugars and syrups added to a food
What is viscous? a gel like consistency
What are the average amount of sugar a person consumes per year? 100 lbs
What is the rise is sugar consumption caused by? commercially prepared foods and beverages
The usual amount of added sugars consumed in a day averages? more than 22 tsp
sugars can be detrimental in what two ways? 1. sugars can contribute to nutrient deficiencies by giving energy with no nutrients 2. sugars contribute to tooth decay or dental caries
What are carb containing foods that cause cavitites? bread, bananas, milk and sugar
What caused obesity to sky rocket? high fructose corn syrup
What is brown sugar? white sugar with molasses added
What is concentration fruit juice sweetner? A concentrated sugar syrup made from dehydrated, deflavored fruit juice
What is confectioner's sugar? finely powdered sucrose
What is corn sweeteners? corn syrup and sugar solution from corn
What is corn syrup? a syrup mostly glucose (some maltose) produced by the actions of enzymes on cornstarch
What is dextrose? an older name for glucose
What is evaporated cane juice? raw sugar from which imputities have been removed
What is honey? concentration solution primarily composed of glucose and fructose
What is invert sugar? mixture of glucose and fructose formed by the splitting of sucrose in a industrial process
What is levulose? An older name for fructose
What is maple sugar? a concentration solution of sucrose derived from the sap of the sugar maple tree's, mostly sucrose
What is molasses? a syrup left over from the refining of sucrose from sugarcane, thick brown syrup
What is raw sugar? The first crop of crystals harvested during sugar processing (to much dirt)
What is turbinado? Raw sugar from which the filth has been washed
What is white sugar? pure sucrose, prduced by dissolving and recrytallizing raw sugar
T or F: Honey contains some vitamins and minerals? T: but not many
T or F: honey is known to relieve nighttime coughing and mouth ulcers T
What are sugar alcohols? sugarlike compounds. like sugars, they are sweet to taste but yeild 2 to 3 k cal per gram
What are nutritive sweeteners? sweeteners that yield energy
What are artificial sweeteners? noncarbohydrate, nonkcaloric synthetic sweetening agents (nonnutritive sweeteners
sugar alcohols are? carbs with less energy
sugar alcohols are often called? nutritive sweeteners because they do yeild some energy
Sugar alcohols cause? gas, abdominal discomfot, and diarrhea
The advantage of using sugar alcohol and artificial sweetners is? they do not contribute to cavities
Sugar alcohols are used in? Gum, mints and other products that people put in their mouths
What is saccharin? it is a sweetener used often in soda
What is the problem with saccharin? it increased bladder cancer in rats
What is acceptable daily intake? The amount of an artifical sweetener that individuals can safely consume each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effect.
What is Acesulfame-K? A 0 calorie sweetener approved by the FDA
What is aspartame? a compound of phenyalanine and aspartic acid that tastes like the sugar sucrose but much sweeter
What is cyclamate? a 0 calorie sweetener
What is neotame? artifical sweetener composed of 2 amino acids
What is sucralose? nonkcaloric sweetener derived from a chlorinate form of sugar that travels though the GI tract unabsorbed
What is tagatose? an incompletely absorbed monosacchardie sweetener derived from latose
people with _________ cannot consume aspartame? metabolic disorder
________ passes through the body unchanged? sucralose
_______ is 7,000 times sweeter than sugar? Neotame
What is classified as "generally recognized as safe"? Tagatose
Tagatose cause what GI prob? gas, rumbling, and loose stools
what artificial sugar has been having issures for 50 years? Cyclamate
What foods decrease risk of type 2 diabetes? high fiber
What foods protect against hearth disease? whole grains, legumes and vegies
What is glycemic response? refers to how quick glucose is absorbed after a person eats, how high glucose rises, and how quickly it returns to normal.
What is the glycemic index? is a method of classifying foods according to their potential to raise blood glucose
What enhances the health of the large intestine? Dietary fibers
What do fibers do? prevent constipation and ease elimination for rectal muscles
What lowers the risk of diverticulosis? insoluble fibers
AS people increase their dietary fiber intakes? their risk for colon cancer declines
Are fiber rich foods tend to be high or low in fat and added sugars? Low
Dietary fiber intake protects against body fat because? They create feelings of fullness, lowering food intake, and delaying hunger
consuming too much fiber causes? minerals to bind and get excreted before the body uses them
carbs should contribute to how much energy? half
T or F: to much fiber is no better than too little T
What does a diet rich in starches and dietary fibers help prevent? heart disease, diabetes, GI disorders, cancer
Most grain choices should be? low in fat and sugar
What is the only group that does not provide carbs? meat
Why do people have worst nutrion now than they used to? Fast food (presevatives, sodium, MSG)
What can support bacterial growth in the mouth? Carbs
What does bacteria produce that eats away at enamel? Acid
Created by: alicia.rennaker