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Nutrition Ch. 2

What is the Pharynx? The passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and exophagus
What is the epiglottis? Cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering when a person swallows
What is the sphincter? a circular muscle surrouding and able to close a body opening
What is the appendix? a narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the colon that stores lymph cells
After food passes into your stomach it turns into? Chyme
What is gastointestinal motility? spontaneous motion in the digestive tract accomplished by involuntary muscular contraction
Peristalsis= Propels (pushes)
Segmentation= mixes, takes them back causing them to mix then pushing forward again
What factors interfere with normal GI tract contractions? stress, meds, medical conditions
They pyloric sphincter open up to the small intestine? 3 times per min
After the stomach liquifies food no longer ____ looks like food
What organs secrete digestive juices? salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, liver (gallbladder) and the pancreas
saliva contains? water, salt, and enzyme, and amylase (they break down starch)
Gastric juices contain? water, enzyme, and hydrochloric acid
What is amylase? enzyme that splits amylose (starch)
What is hydochloric acid? acid composed of hydrogen and chloride
What protects the cells from digestive juices? mucus
what is pepsin? a protien digesting enzyme in the stomach
What is intestinal juice? the secretion of the intestinal glands. contains enzymes for digestion of carbs and protein and some fat
What is bile? secreted by the liver and it emulsifies (suspends fat in water) fats and oil for digestion. stored in gallbladder and released by small intestine
what is bicarbonate? an alkaline secretion of the pancreas, neutralizes chyme
If the meal is high in simple sugars digestion is? rapid
If the meal is high in fat? Slow
What makes stool soft? Fiber because it retains water
Most absorbtion takes place where? Small intestine (10 ft long)
Nutrients are absorbed where? small intestine and taken to the liver
what are villi in the small intestine? several hundred cells on the small folds in the small intestine
What are microvilli? Hairs on the villi that trap nutrients
How are nutrients trasported in the body? blood and lymphatic system
What are triglycerides? One of the main classes of lipids the cheif form of fat
what are chylmicrons? The lipoprotiens that transport lipids from the intestinal cells into the body. the cells of the obdy remove the lipids they need from them.
What does the lymphatic system do? conveys the products of digestion toward the heart
What are lipoproteins? cluster of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in lymph and blood
what is the vascular system? a closed system of vessels through which blood flows in a figure 8, with the heart serving as a pump at the crossover point. (heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, heart)
How is blood flow to the digestive system? carried to the digestive system by arteries-capillaries to reach every cell
how does blood flow from the digestive system? veins
Where does the hepatic portal vein go? to the liver
Blood leaving the liver leaves by? hepatic vein and returns it to the heart
What is the body's major metabolic organ? Liver
the liver protects what? Heart and brain
They lymphatic system is? a one way route for fluids to travel from tissue spaces into the blood
Lipids travel bundled with what? protein
What are very low dense proteins? the type of lipoproteins made by liver cells to transport lipids to variou tissures in the body
what are low density lipoproteins? Type of lipoprteins derived from VLDL as cells remove triglycerides from them. they carry cholesterol and triglycerides from liver to cells and are composed of cholesterol
what are high density lipoproteins? the type of lipoprteins that transport cholesterol back to the liver from peripheral cells composed of protein
high LDL mean? High risk of disease
Elevated HDL mean? Low risk
what affects GI tract health? sleep, activity, state of mind and nutrition
sleep allows the GI tract to? repair tissure
Activity allows the GI tract to? healthy muscle tone and protects agianst colon cancer
Created by: alicia.rennaker