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Chem

Chemistry Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
Many properties of the atoms are due to what? distance of the outer electrons from the nucleus, and the effective nuclear charge experienced by these electrons
What screen the outer electrons from the full charge of the nucleus? core electrons
Do electrons in the same shell screen each other? not effectively at all
What is the trend of effective nuclear charge as we move left to right across a period? effective nuclear charge increases
What is the trend of atomic radii as we go down a column? left to right? atomic radii increases as we go down a column and decreases as we go left to right
Are cations smaller or bigger than their parent atoms? smaller
Are anions smaller or bigger than their parent atoms? bigger
What is the size trend for ions of the same charge? for ions of the same charge, size increases going down a column of the periodic table
Isoelectronic series a series of ions that has the ame number of electrons. Size decreases with increasing nuclear charge as the electrons are attracted more strongly to the nucleus
ionization energy the minimum energy needed to remove an electron from the atom in the gas phase, forming a cation.
second ionization energy the energy needed to remove a second electron.
Why do ionization energies increase after all valence electrons have been removed? because of much higher effective nuclear charge experienced by the core electrons.
What are the trend of ionization energy as we go down a column? left to right? first ionization energy decrease as we go down a column and increases as we go left to right. The smaller atoms have a higher first ionization energy.
Electrons are first removed from where? from the orbitals with the largest value of n
Electrons are first added to where? to orbitals wtih the lowest value of n
electron affinity energy change upon adding an electron to an atom in the gas phase, forming an anion.
What does a negative electron affinity mean? positive? the anion is stable if it is negative. anion is not stable if it is positive.
What is the trend of electron affinities? more negative as we go from left to right, little change as we go down column
What elements have the most negative electron affinities?? the halogens
Is the electron affinities of the noble gases negative or positive? all are positive
What is the trend in metallic character? increases as we go down a column, and decreases as we go from left to right
characteristics of metals good conductor of heat and electricity, luster, the metal atoms are oxidized to cations.
Metal oxides + acids --> ? salts and water
are metal oxides basic or acidic? basic
nonmetal characteristics lack luster, poor conductor of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature. Compounds of entirely nonmetals are molecular. Form anions when they react wtih metals.
Are nonmetal oxides acidic or basic? acidic
Nonmetal + bases --> ? salt and water
Alkali metals (group 1A), soft metals with low densities and low melting points. have the lowest ionization energies, so they are very reactive toward nonmetals. Form 1+ ions
Alkaline earth metals (group 2A), harder and more dense and have higher melting points than the alkali metals. Very reactive toward nonmetals. Form 2+ ions.
Hydrogen nonmetal, form molecular compounds w/other nonmetals, such as oxygen and halogens
Oxygen (in group 6A), diatomic molecule, gain electrons from other elements, thus oxidizing them.
Ozone O3
Halogens (group 7A), nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules, most negative affinities, form 1- ions.
Noble gases (group 8A), monoatomic gases, unreactive because they have completely filled s and p subshells.
Do noble gases react at all? only the heaviest noble gases are known to form compounds, and they do so only with very active nonmetals, like flourine
Created by: Tiffastic