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Nutrition Ch. 1

The choices people make each day affect not only their physical health but also? Their Wellness
People who make bad choices daily increase a health risk of? Disease
Definition of health? a range of states with physical, mental, emotional, spiritual and social components..
Definition of wellness? Maximum well being
People will alter their eating habits only if? their prefrences are honored
What foods can reduce the risk of cancer? Fruits and Vegies because they contain phytochemicals and nutrients.
What affects food choices? Preference, habit, associations, ethnic heritage and tradition, religion, values, social interaction, emotional state, convenience, age, occupation, image, medical conditions
What does association mean when it comes to food choices? Foods that are eaten at family gathering or given to them as a child. Associated with happy associations.
How does someones values affect food choice? They may only pick food that is in recycles containers or only sold by local farmers.
What is nutrition? the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and the way they are taken into the body.
What is bioactive food components? components in foods that alter physiological processes in the body.
What are phytochemicals? compounds in plants that confer color, taste and other characteristics.
What are foodways? The eating habits and culinary practices of a people, region, or historical period.
What are ethnic diets? Foodways and cuisines typical of national orgins, races, and heritages.
How do emotions effect diets? Eat if they are bored, depressed, or need to calm anxiety
What foods to adults usually choose? foods that reflects their health concer. ex. No sweets
How does occupation effect food choices? Because they may have a job that keeps them away from home and they may only have little time to eat.
How does medical conditions effect food choice? Heart attack (lower fats) Allergies
What is the primary concern for making food choices? Nutrition
What are functional foods? foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
What are the simplist functional foods? Whole foods such as oatmeal or tomatoes
Type of food that has been modified? orange juice fortified with calcium to build strong bones.
Why do consumers usually welcome new food? easy to find, clearly labeled, easy to find, convienient.
What are the healthiest food choices? Whole grains, fruits and vegies, fish, poultry, and milk products
What are the six classes of nutrients? Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals
What are the nutrients that food must supply the body? Essential nutrients
What nutrients contain carbon and are organic (living)? Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins
During metabolism which nutrients provide energy (Energy yielding nutrients)? Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
What 2 nutrients meet most of the body's energy needs? Carbohydrates and fats
What makes a contribution to energy when other nutrients are unavailable? Protein
What nutrient facilitats the release of energy from the three energy yeilding nutrients? Vitamins
What are the 2 inorganic nutrients? Water and minerals
T or F: Minerals help the release of energy TRUE
What is the medium in which all the body's processes take place? Water
What is the amount of energy that carbs, fats, and proteins release measured in? Calories
What are calories? tiny units of energy so small that a single apple provides tens of thousands of them
Food Energy is expresses in what metric units? Kilocalories (Kcalories)
What are Kcalories? They are a measure of the energy food provide
Carbs and protiens yields ____ of energy from each gram? 4
Fat yields ___ of energy? 9
How to you find the amount of Kcalories? Carbs and proteins X4 Fats X9 And add together
What is pure carbohydrate? Sugar
What is pure fat? Oil
What other substance contributes energy? Alcohol
What rate is energy derived from alcohol? 7 kcalories per gram
What is energy density? A measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
What are dietary reference intakes? a set of volues for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy peple in the US and canada, used to plan diets
The DRI provides what 2 sets of values to be used a nutrient intake goals? RDA-recommended dietary allowances and AI-adequate intakes
What are recommended dietary allowances? A set of values reflecting the average daily amounts of nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people in a particualar life stage and gender group
What are adequate intakes? a set of values that are used as guides for nutrient intakes when scientific evidence is insufficient to determine an RDA
What is requirements? The lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.
What is deficient? In regard to nutrient intake, describes the amount below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms
What is EAR? Estimated average requirements Nutrients
What is the tolerable upper intake levels? a set of values reflecting the highest average daily nutrient intake levels that are likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healhty individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
What is EAR used for? N Program for groups (school, military)
What is RDA used for? N set goals for individuals
What is UL used for? N help to keep nutrient intake below the amounts that cause toxicity
What is the DRI used for? N variety of purposes
What is the EER (estimated energy requirement)? recommendation for energy intake based on age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity
How do you get energy balance? energy expenditure=energy intake
Excess of energy (protein,fat,carb) leads to? Weight gain
What is AMDR-Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges? Healthy ranges of intakes for the energy yielding nutrients (carb, fat, protein)
What does the DRI committee determine is the right amount of energy yeilding nutrients to prevent disease? 45 to 65 % of carb 20 to 35 % of fat 10 to 35 % of protein
What are some nutrient related conditions? growth retardation, heart disease, and nutrient deficiencies
What is malnutrition? any condition cause by deficient or excess energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
What is Healthy People? a program that identifies that nation's health priorities and guides policies that promote health and prevent diesease
What do nutrition surveys measure? food consumption and evaluate the nutrition status of populations
What is overnutrtion? overconsumption of food energy or nutrients sufficient to cause disease or increased ssceptibility to disease
What is undernutrition? underconsumption of food energy or nutrient severse enough to cause disease or increase disease
What contributes to many chronic diseases? excess of energy, certain fats, and alcohol
What 2 lifestyle habits have more effect on health than diet? smoking, and excessive alcohol drinking
what 4 things influence disease? diet, genetics, activity,and lifestyle
A nutritious diet is achieved by _ basic ideals? 6
What are the 6 characeristics of a nutritious diet? Adequacy, balance(nutrients), kcarlorie control(healthy energy), nutritent density, moderation, and variety
What are empty kcalorie foods? provide energy but no protein, vit, or minerals (chips, candy, colas)
Nutrient density promotes? adequacy and kcalorie control
A well planned diet delivers? adequate nutrients, a balanced array of nutrients, and an appropriate amount of energy
A ________ lifestyle is linked to the major degenerative diseases? Sedentary
What is Aerobic physical activity? Activity in which the body's large muscles move in a rhythmic manner a sustained period of time. (walk, run, swim, bicycle)
What is moderate intensity physical activity? physical activity the requires some increase in breathing or heart rate
What is vigorous intensity physical activity? physical activity that requires a large increase in breathing and heart rate
What does the body do when it is resting after physical activity? they body repairs injuries, disposes of wastes, and builds new physical structures
What is cardiorespiratory excercise? running, cycling, swimming, skating, rowing...
What is strength excercise? pull up, push up, weight lifting
What is flexibility excercise? Yoga
What is a food group plan? a diet plainning tool that sorts foods into groups based on nutrient content and then specifies that people should eat certain amounts of food from each group
What are the 5 food groups? fruits, vegies, grains, meat poultry fish, milk yogurt and cheese
What are legumes? bean with seeds that are rich in protein
What provides vit. B? Dark green vegies
What provides vit. A? Orange vegies
What do legumes supply? iron and protein
The USDA nutrients of concern are? Vit. ACE (Ca, Mg, and K)
What is discretionary kcalorie allowance? The kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day
Added fats and sugars are always counted as? Discretionary Kcalories
The USDA food guide emphasizes? Nutrient dense foods
What does the "nutrition facts" panel provide? Serving size, daily values and nutrient quantities
What do daily values do? they set adequacy standards for nutrients that are desirable in the diet and they set moderation standards for other nutrients that must be limited
What are daily values? reference values developed by the FDA
How is nutrient information presented? quantities and percents
What claims do you find on labels? nutrient claims, health claims, structure function claims
What is a nutrient claim? describes the content of the product (contains or doesn't contain)
What are health claims? When the FDA investigate to make sure a claim is true
What are structure function claims? statement about a food substances effect on a structure or function of the body
Food labels list ingredients in? Descending order
Created by: alicia.rennaker