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Unit 7:1

Basic structure of the human body (updated)

QuestionAnswer
Is composed of ordinary elements. Protoplasm
Microscopic structures that carry on all of the functions of life. Cells
Vary in shape and size and perform many different functions. Cells
A semi-fluid inside the cell but outside the nucleus Cytoplasm
A mass in the cytoplasm Nucleus
Located in the cytoplasm and near the nucleus centrosome
Gametes divide by a process known as meiosis
An insufficient amount of tissue fluid results in dehydration
A soft connective tissue includes ligaments and tendons
Hard connective tissue includes cartilage and bone.
Produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers muscle tissue
Cells in the brain and spinal cord that do not reproduce after birth. Nerve
Nerve tissue is made of special cells called neurons
Classified as liquid connective tissue or vascular tissue. Blood and lymph
Organs and other body parts joined together to perform a particular function are called a system.
When cells divide by meiosis the number of chromosomes is reduced to 23.
Have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body’s specialized cells. Stem cells
Blood and lymph are classified as liquid connective tissue called vascular tissue
The study of the processes of living organisms, or why and how they work, is called physiology
The part of a cell that condenses to form chromosomes during cell reproduction is the chromatin
A stack of membrane layers that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell is the Golgi apparatus
The site for all chemical reactions that take place in the cell is the cytoplasm
Pocketlike folds in the cell membrane that allow large molecules to enter the cell are pinocytic vesicles
The area where ribosomes are manufactured in the cell is the nucleolus
The structures that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells are the lysosomes
The four main groups of tissues are nerve, connective, epithelial, and muscle
The tissue that produces power and movement in the body is muscle
The tissue that lines the intestinal and respiratory tracts and forms body glands is epithelial
The body system that includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi is the respiratory system
The body system that carries some tissue fluid and wastes to the blood and assists with fighting infection is the lymphatic system
The body system that protects the body from injury, infection, and dehydration is the integumentary system
The body system that filters blood to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body is the urinary system
Study of form and structure of an organism Anatomy
Basic unit of structure and function in all living things Cell
Outer protective covering of a cell Cell membrane
Also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma Cell membrane
Furnaces or powerhouses of the cell Mitochondria
Located inside the nucleus and important in cell reproduction Nucleolus
Controls many cell activities Nucleus
Tissues joined together for a particular function Organ
Pathophysiology Study of how disease occurs
Take in food and oxygen, produce heat and energy, move and adapt to their environment, eliminate wastes, perform special functions, reproduce Functions of cells
Stores fat as a food reserve, insulates the body, acts as padding Functions of adipose tissue
Types of muscles skeletal, cardiac, visceral (smooth)
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, digestive, urinary (excretory), endocrine, and reproductive body systems.
Why is the use of stem cells to produce new specialized cells, which can replace a body’s damaged cells and cure a disease, creating a controversy? stem cells are obtained from a 4- to 5-day-old embryo that is capable of creating a new life; right-to-life advocates are strongly opposed to this use of embryos.
When there is an excess amount of tissue fluid it is called edema
Organelles located in the cytoplasm nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum
It can contain more than 1,000 mitochondria, depending on how much energy it requires a cell
Bone is similar to cartilage but has calcium salts, nerves, and blood vessels; it is frequently called osseous tissue
Lymph transports tissue fluid,proteins, fats, and other materials from the tissues to the circulatory system
Pouchlike structures that are found throughout the cytoplasm and filled with a watery substance, stored food, or waste products are the vacuoles
The site for all chemical reactions that take place in the cell is called the? cytoplasm
Cells of the same type joined together for a common purpose tissue
Study of how disease occurs pathophysiology
Genetic testing involves the analysis of a person's Genes
Gene therapy might be suggested as a last resort for treating someone with: Cystic fibrosis
What words best describe the current use of gene therapy? Experimental and expensive
The results of the Human Genome Project can be described as: Gene mapping
What country completed the Human Genome Project? It was an international effort
The goal of therapeutic cloning: to harvest stem cells
Is a test tube baby the same as a clone? it could be
Where in a healthy adult could you find stem cells? bone marrow
Why do stem cells have so much potential in medical research: they can become specialized cells in the body.
Can genetic testing tell for certain that a person will develop Alzheimer's disease? No, because a person with the Alzheimer's gene may not develop the disease.
Created by: votec