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DIT 2009 WK 6

Q&A from DIT emailed questions WK 6

QuestionAnswer
Pathway by which light affects melatonin secretion Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) -> NE release -> pineal gland -> melatonin
What structures give rise to the glomerular filtration barrier? Fenestrated capillary endothelium (size barrier), Fused basement membrane w/ heparin sulfate (negative charge barrier), epithelial layer consisting of podocyte foot processes
Which disease results from a loss of the negative charge glomerular filtration barrier? Nephrotic syndrome – ie Minimal Change
Three symptoms of pellagra Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
Causes of pellagra Hartnup disease, malignant carcinoid syndrome, INH
What factors are considered when determining the loading dose and maintenance dose of a medication? Bioavailability, target plasma concentration, volume of distribution
What are the two types of diabetes insipidus? Nephrogenic and Central
What is the cause of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus? hereditary or 2nd to hypercalcemia, lithium, demeclocycline
What is the cause of Central Diabetes Insipidus? pituitary tumor, trauma, surgery, histiocytosis X OR due to a lack of renal response to ADH
What is the cause of cystinuria? Hereditary defect of renal tubular amino acid transporter for cysteine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine in the PCT
What is the treatment of cystinuria? Acetazolamide to alkalinze the urine
What is the WAGR complex? Wilms’ tumor – Aniridia – Genitourinary malformation - Retardation (motor-mental)
What two drugs are given to those with organophosphate poisoning? Atropine and Pralidoxime
Common causes of eosinophilia? Drugs, Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic processes, Addison’s, Acute interstitial nephritis, Churg Strauss, Collagen vascular diseases, Parasites (Loffler’s)
What antibiotic has an MOA that blocks DNA topoisomerase? Quinolones
What antibiotic has an MOA that blocks the synthesis of peptidoglycans Bacitracin, Vancomycin
What antibiotic has an MOA that blocks nucleotide synthesis? Sulfonamides, trimethoprim
What antibiotic has an MOA that block mRNA synthesis? Rifampin
leading causes of death in ages 25-64 Cancer, heart disease, injuries suicide, stroke
leading causes of death in ages 65+ Heart disease, cancer, stroke, COPD, pneumonia, influenza
What are the risk factors for a fat embolus? Associated with long bone fractures and liposuction
What are the risk factors for a pulmonary embolus? Deep venous thrombosis
What is Virchow’s triad? stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage
What structures arise from the Mesonephric ducts? Male internal structures (except prostate): Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens
Another name is given to the Mesonephric ducts? Wolffian duct
Which lysosomal storage disease has a cherry spot on retina? Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick
Which lysosomal storage disease has corneal clouding + mental retardation? Hurler's Sx
Which lysosomal storage disease has no corneal clouding + mental retardation? Hunter's Sx
Which lysosomal storage disease is a demyelinating disease that affects peripheral nerves? Metachromatic leukodystrophy
Which lysosomal storage disease is known for having cells described as "crinkled paper cytoplasm" Gaucher's
Which lysosomal storage disease has sphingomyelin buildup? Niemmann-Pick
Which lysosomal storage disease is treated with dialysis? Fabry's
Which lysosomal storage disease has accumulation of galactocerebroside in the brain? Krabbe's (Globoid cells)
Which lysosomal storage disease has accumulation of glucocerebroside in the brain? Gaucher's (severe bone pain)
Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever? Major Criteria: Migratory polyarthritis, Carditis, Subcutaneous nodules (Aschoff bodies), Ertythema marginatum, Sydenham’s chorea (St. Vitus’ dance)
What are some of the extrapulmonary (peripheral hypoventilation) causes of restrictive lung disease? poor muscular effort – polio, MG or poor structural apparatus – scoliosis, morbid obesity
Drug that can be used to treat carcinoid syndrome? Octreotide – synthetic analog of somatostatin w/ a longer half life
What is "conscious" in Freudian psychoanalysis? What one is aware of
What is "preconscious" in Freudian psychoanalysis? What one is able to make conscious with efforts (memorizing a number)
What is "unconscious" in Freudian psychoanalysis? What one is not aware of; the central goal of Freudian psychoanalysis is to make one aware of the hidden unconscious
Muscles of the rotator cuff? Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
What is Wernicke's aphasia? Sensory (fluent/receptive) aphasia with poor comprehension, neologisms
What is Broca’s aphasia? Motor (non-fluent/expressive) aphasia with good comprehension (above hippocampus)
What is conduction aphasia? lesion in Arcuate fasciculus (connects Wernicke’s to Broca’s), good comprehension, fluent speech, but poor repetition
Created by: snezya24