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DIT 2009 WK 5

Q&A from DIT emailed questions WK 5

QuestionAnswer
What are the stages of dying according to Kubler-Ross? Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Grieving, Acceptance
Explain the development of the thyroid gland Diverticulum arises form floor of primitive pharynx, descends into neck
Which IV anesthetic is a/w hallucinations and bad dreams? Ketamine (Arylcyclohexylamines)
Which IV anesthetic is the most common drug used for endoscopy? Midazolam (Benzodiazepine)
Which IV anesthetic is used for rapid anesthesia induction? Profolol
Which IV anesthetic decreases cerebral blood flow (important in brain surgery)? Thiopental (Barbituate)
What is the mechanism of action and clinical use for methylphenidate? •MOA: increase presynaptic NE vesicular release (like amphetamines) •CU: ADHD, major depressive do, narcolepsy
What is the most common urea cycle disorder? Ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) deficiency
What are the findings with OTC deficiency? Findings of orotic acid in blood and urine, decreased BUN, symptoms of hyperammonemia
What change is seen in Barrett’s esophagus? Glandular metaplasia + Goblet cells
What is glandular metaplasia? Replacement of nonkeratinized (stratified) squamous epithelium with intestinal (columnar) epithelium in the distal esophagus
Equation for determining a drug’s clearance? = 0.7 x Vd/Half-life or = rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug concentration
What substance activates the classic complement pathway? Antigen-antibody complexes (IgG and IgM as well)
What substance activates the alternative compliment pathway? Microbial surfaces – cell wall components (IgA as well)
In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of the sample population falls 1 standard deviation? 68%
In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of the sample population falls 2 standard deviations? 95%
In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of the sample population falls 3 standard deviations? 99.7%
What is seen in Budd-Chiari syndrome? Occlusion of IVC or hepatic veins with centrilobular congestion and necrosis, leading to congestive liver disease. May develop varices and have visible abdominal and back veins
What conditions are a/w Budd-Chiari syndrome? Polycythemia vera, pregnancy, and hepatocellular carcinoma
What tests can be used to help detect the presence of an MI? •ECG, Cardiac troponin I, CK-MB •ECG changes in transmural infarct: ST elevation, pathologic Q waves •ECG changes in subendocardial infarct: ST depression
What is the equation for calculating the glomerular filtration rate? = ([inulin] in urine X Flow)/[inulin] in plasma
What are the normal GFR values? 90 - 125 ml/min
How long does it normally take for an antidepressant to start working? 2 - 3 weeks
What is the mechanism of action of cyclosporin? • MOA: Binds to cyclophilins. Complex blocks the differentiation and activation of T-cells y inhibiting calcinerium, thus preventing the production of IL-2 and its receptors
In which glomerular disease would you expect to see anti-GBM antibodies (immunoflourescence)? Goodpasture Syndrome
In which glomerular disease would you expect to see Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions (light microscope)? Diabetic glomerulonephropathy
In which glomerular disease would you expect to see "spike and dome" appearance (electron microscope)? Membranous glomerulonephritis
In which glomerular disease would you expect to see "tram track" of subendothelial humps (electron microscope)? Membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis
In which glomerular disease would you expect to see subepithelial immune complex humps (electron microscope)? Acute post-strep GN
The most common cause of osteomyelitis in all patients? Staph. aureus
The most common cause of osteomyelitis in sickle cell patients? Salmonella
The most common cause of osteomyelitis in drug addict patients? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What amino acids are necessary for purine synthesis? Glycine, Aspartate, Glutamine
What is the rate-limiting enzyme for pyrimidine synthesis? Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase)
What is the rate-limiting enzyme for purine synthesis? Glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase
What are the common causes of dilated cardiomyopathy? Chronic alcohol abuse, Beriberi, Coxsackie B virus myocarditis, chronic cocaine use, Chagas’ dz, Doxorubicin tox, peripartum cardiomyopathy
What hormone is detected in a positive urine pregnancy test? (Who secretes it?) Beta-hCG (trophoblasts)
How long after conception will b-hCG first appear in the urine? 2 weeks
Created by: snezya24