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DIT 2009 WK 4

Q&A from DIT emailed questions WK 4

QuestionAnswer
What are the common side effects of beta-blockers? Impotence, exacerbation of asthma, cardiovascular adverse effects (bradycardia, AV block, CHF), CNS adverse effects (sedation, sleep alterations)
Which pt populations should use caution when taking beta-blockers? Caution w/ diabetics due to the blockage of adrenergic symptoms w/ hypoglycemia
What are the signs of right-sided heart failure? Hepatomegaly (nutmeg liver), ankle/sacral edema, jugular venous distention
What are the signs of left-sided heart failure? Dyspnea on exertion, cardiac dilation, pulmonary edema/paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea
What asthma medication is the inhaled treatment of choice for chronic asthma? Corticosteroids: Prednisone
What asthma medication is the inhaled treatment of choice for acute exacerbations Albuterol
What asthma medication is known to have a narrow therapeutic index, used as drug of last resort? Theophylline (Methylxanthines)
What asthma medication blocks the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene? Zileuton
What asthma medication inhibits mast cell release of mediators, used for prophylaxis only? Cromolyn
What asthma medication is inhaled and blocks muscarinic receptors? Ipratropium
What asthma medication is inhaled and is a long-acting beta-agonist? Salmeterol
What asthma medication blocks leukotriene receptors? Motelukast, Zafirlukast
What bacterium causes leprosy (AKA Hansen’s disease? Mycobacterium leprae
What part of the body is infected in Hansen's Dz? Skin and superficial nerves infected
What animal is a reservoir for leprosy in the US? Armadillos
What are the symptoms of Kluver-Bucy syndrome? Hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior
What area of the brain is damaged in Kluver-Bucy syndrome? Amygdala (bilateral)
Why should a “Hot T-Bone stEAk” come to mind when someone asks you about interleukins? - 1–H: fever, 2–T: T cell stimulation, 3–B: Bone marrow stimulation, 4–E: IgE & IgG, 5–A: IgA & Eosinophils
Leading causes of death in ages 1-14 Injuries, cancer, congenital anomalies, homicide, heart disease
Leading causes of death in ages 15-24 Injuries, homicide, suicide, cancer, heart disease
What are the side effects of neuroleptic toxicity Extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects, endocrine side effects, antimuscarinic side effects
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe acute dystonia 4 hrs – muscle spasm, stiffness, oculogyric crisis
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe Akinesia 4 d – parkinsonian symptoms
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe Akathisia 4 wk – restlessness
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe Tardative dyskinesia 4 mo – stereotypic oral-facial movements due to long term antipsychotic use, often irreversible
What is the composition of a nucleosome? Core histones: H2A, H2B, H3, H4
Which histone ties nucleosomes together? H1 (30nm fiber)
What types of preventive services are needed in Diabetics? Eye, foot exams; urine tests, flu/pneumo vaccine, daily glc
What types of preventive services are needed in drug abusers? Hepatitis immunizations; HIV, TB tests
What types of preventive services are needed in alcoholics? Influenza, pneumococcal immunizations; TB test, Hep A & B vaccines
What types of preventive services are needed in high risk sexual behavior patients? HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia tests, pap smear
What are the causes of normocytic, normochromic anemia? • Acute hemorrhage, enzyme defects (G6PD deficiency, PK deficiency), RBC membrane defects (hereditary spherocytosis), BM disorders (aplastic anemia, leukemia), Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell), Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Anemia of chronic dz
What 5 classes of medications are used to treat glaucoma? • Alpha-agonists, Beta-blockers, Cholinomimetics, Diuretics, Prostaglandin (PGF2alpha)
What infections are caused by Chlamydiae? -C. trachomatis: Reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, nongonococcal urethritis and PID -C. pneumonia and C. psittaci: atypical pneumonia
What is the treatment for most Chlamydia infections? Erythromycin or tetracycline
What are the characteristics of thoracic outlet syndrome? • Atrophy of thenar and hypothenar eminences, atrophy of the interosseous muscles, sensory deficits on the medial side of the forearm and hand, disappearance of the radial pulse upon moving the head toward the opposite side
What abnormal lab values would lead you to suspect alcoholic hepatitis? AST > ALT
What are the most common locations for atherosclerosis? Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery
What vitamin deficiencies would you expect to see in a pt with a malabsorption syndrome such as cystic fibrosis or celiac sprue? Fat soluble vit deficiency - A, D, E, K
What types of pancreatic tumors are often seen in MEN type I? Pancreatic endocrine tumors: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, insulinomas, VIPomas, glucagonomas (rare)
Nerve innervation for tongue sensation of the anterior 2/3's V3 (1st Arch)
Nerve innervation for tongue sensation of the posterior 1/3 IX (3rd and 4th Arch)
Nerve innervation for tongue sensation of the posterior root X
Nerve innervation for tongue taste in the anterior 2/3's VII (Chrodatympani)
Nerve innervation for tongue taste in the posterior 1/3 IX
Nerve innervation for tongue taste in the posterior root, taste buds of larynx and upper esophagus X
Nerve innervation for tongue motor (except pataloglossus m) XII
Nerve innervation for tongue pataloglossus muscle X
What is the classic presenting symptom in a pt with Lyme disease? Erythema chronicum migrans: expanding “bull’s eye” red rash w/ central clearing
Created by: snezya24