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Electrolytes & Acid-Base Balances

Hyponatremia Sodium level <135mEq/L Causes- abnormal GI losses (vomitting, diarrhea), renal losses (kidney disease), skin losses (burns, wound drainage, GI obstruction) Nur Inter- Restrict H2O intake, hypertonic oral & IV fluid, monitor I&O/vitals
Hypernatremia Sodium level >145mEq/L Causes- water deprivation (NPO), fluid losses, age-related changes (altered thirst mechanism) Nurs Int- encourage water intake, diuretics, oral hygiene, monitor I&O
Hypokalemia Potassium level <3.5mEq/L Causes- decreased total body potassium, insufficient potassium, intracellular shift, age-related factors Nurs Inter-encourage foods high in potassium, monitor for phlebitis, maintain adequate urine output
Hyperkalemia Potassium level >5mEq/L Nursing Interventions-withhold oral potassium, potassium-losing diuretics,dialysis, monitor cardiac rythm
Hypocalcemia Calcium level <9mg/dL Nursing Interventions-oral/IV calcium supplements, encourage foods high in calcium, seizure precautions
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium level <1.2mg/d: Causes- malnutrition, alcohol ingestion Nursing Inter- discontinue magnesium-losing meds, administer oral/IV magnesium sulfate, encourage foods high in magnesium
Created by: nfeldman