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Ap Biology Ch. 12

The Cell Cycle

QuestionAnswer
cell division the reproduction of cells
cell cycle An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; Composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases
genome the complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material
chromosome A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one vary long DNA molecule and associated proteins
somatic cell Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
gamete a haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
chromatin The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing. chromatin consists of a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
sister chromatids replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
centromere the centralized region joining two sister chromatids
mitosis A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
meiosis a two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
mitotic (M) phase the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase the period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase counts for 90% of the cell cycle
G1 phase the first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
S phase The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase in which DNA is replicated
G2 phase the second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
prophase The first stage of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
prometaphase the second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
metaphase The third stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate
anaphase the fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
telophase The fifth and final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
mitotic spindle An assembalage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
centrosome Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule organizing center
kinetochore A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
metaphase plate An imaginary plate during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles
cleavage The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characteried by pinching of the plasma membrane. Also, the succession of rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cells
cleavage furrow the first sign of clevage in an animal cell; a shallow grove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
cell plate A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
binary fission The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each divinding daughter cell recieves a copy of the single parental chromosome
origin of replication site were the replication of a DNA molecule begins
cell cycle control system A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
checkpoint A critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
G0 phase A nondividing state in which the cell has left the cell cycle
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin
MPF Maturation promoting factor (M-phase-promoting factor); a protein comples required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active from consists of cyclin and a protein kinase
growth factor A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (cell culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells; a local regulator that acts on near by cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differen
density dependent inhibition The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another
anchorage dependence The requirment that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum
transformation The conversion of a normal cell into a cancerous cell
benign tumor A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the sight of origin
malignant tumor A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs
metastasis The spread of cancer cells from the location of the original site
Created by: gnomealot