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Respiratory Emergencies: Patho - Related to ventilation, diffusion, perfusion.

Diffusion Process of gas exchange.
Ventilation Process of air movement into and out of the lungs.
Perfusion Process of circulation of the blood through the lung tissues(capillary bed).
[ventilation problem] Upper airway obstruction [ventilation example] Foreign body, epiglottis
[ventilation problem] Lower airway obstruction [ventilation example] Asthma, airway edema
[ventilation problem] Chest wall impairment [ventilation example] Trauma, muscular dystrophy
[ventilation problem] Neurogenic dysfunction [ventilation example] Central nervous system (CNS)- depressant drugs, stroke
[diffusion problem] Inadequate oxygen in ambient air [diffusion example] Fire environment, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning
[diffusion problem] Alveolar disorder [diffusion example] Lung disease,inhalation injury
[diffusion problem] Interstitial space disorder [diffusion example] Pulmonary edema, near-drowning
[diffusion problem] Capillary bed disorder [diffusion example] Severe artherosclerosis
[perfusion problem] Inadequate blood volume or hemoglobin levels [perfusion example] Shock, anemia
[perfusion problem] Impaired circulatory blood flow [perfusion example] Pulmonary embolus
[perfusion problem] Capillary wall disorder [perfusion example] Trauma
For ventilation to occur, the following must be intact: - Neurological control (to initiate ventilation) - Nerves between the brain stem and the muscles of respiration - Functional diaphragm and intercostal muscles - Patent upper airway - Alveoli that are functional and have not collapsed
For diffusion to occur, the following must be intact: - Alveolar and capillary walls that are not thickened - Interstitial space between the alveoli and capillary wall that is not enlarged or filled with fluid
For perfusion to occur, the following must be intact: - Adequate blood volume - Adequate hemoglobin in the blood - Pulmonary capillaries that are not blocked - Efficient pumping by the heart that provides a smooth flow of blood through the pulmonary capillary bed
Created by: cashflowlg



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