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Ch 2 Cell

Structure and Function

Plasma membrane Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates
Cytoplasm Contains cytosol, inclusions and organelles
Cytosol Viscous fluid w/dissolved solutes
Organelles Membrane and non-membrane bound stuctures w/unique functions and actions
Inclusions Droplets of melanin, protein, glycogen granules, or lipid; usually non-membrane bound
Nucleus Surrounded by double membrane and contains nucleolus and chromatin
Nuclear envelope Double membrane boundary btwn cytoplasm and nuclear contents
Nuclear pore Openings through the nuclear envelope
Nucleolus Spherical, dark-staining, dense granular region in the nucleus
Chromatin and chromosomes Filamentous association of DNA and histone proteins
Site of genes in the DNA Chromatin and chromosomes
Synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus Nucleolus
Allow for passage of materials btwn nucleus and cytoplasm Nuclear pores
Holds the pores that regulates the exchange of materials with the cytoplasm Nuclear envelope
Control center; DNA and ribosome subunit assembly Nucleus
Carry out specific metabolic activities Organelles
Store materials Inclusions
Provides support for organelles and where diffusion occurs Cytosol
Site of metabolic processes of the cell and stores nutrients and dissolved solutes Cytoplasm
Contains receptors for communication and forms intercellular connections Plasma membrane
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Membrane bound-Interconnected network of membrane tubules and visicles;no ribosomes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Membrane bound-Flattened intracellular network of membrane sacs call cisternae; ribosomes attached on cytoplasmic surface
Golgi apparatus Membrane bound-Stacked series of flattened, smooth membrane sacs with associated shuttle vesicles
Lysosomes Membrane bound-Membrane sacs with digestive enzymes
Peroxisomes Membrane bound-Membrane enclosed sacs; usually contain large amounts of specific enzmes to break down hamrful substances
Mitochondria Membrane bound-Double membrane structures w/cristae; liquid matrix contents at center
Ribosomes Non-membrane bound; Dense cytoplasmic granules w/2 subunits (large & small) and are free or fixed
Cytoskeleton Non-membrane bound; Organized network of protein filaments or hollow tubules
Microfilaments Non-membrane bound; Actin protein monomers formed into filaments
Intermediate filaments Non-membrane bound; Various protein components
Microtubules Non-membrane bound; Hollow cylinders of tubulin protein; able to lengthen and shorten
Centrosome Nonmembrane bound-Amorphous region adjacent to the nucleus; contains a pair of centrioles
Cilia Non-membrane bound; Short, membrane-attached projections containing microtubules. In large numbers on exposed membrane surfaces
Flagellum Non-membrane bound; Long, singular membrane extension containing microtubules
Microvilli Nonmembrane bound-Numerous thin membrane folds projecting from the free cell surface
Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbs, and detoxifies drugs/alcohol Smooth ER
Synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane, lysosomal enzymes and transports/stores molecules Rough ER
Modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for secretion, inclusion in new plasma membrane, or lysosomal enzyme synthesis Golgi apparatus
Digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell and removes old/damaged organelles Lysosomes
Term that means "to self-destruct" (lysosomes do this) Autolyze
Convert hydrogen peroxide that is formed during metabolism to water Peroxisomes
Synthesize most ATP during cellular respiration. AKA-powerhouse Mitochondria
Synthesizes proteins Ribosomes
What synthesizes proteins for use within the cell? Free ribosomes
What synthesizes proteins for secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane, or lysosomes? Fixed ribosomes
Provides stuctural support; facilitates motility, transport, and movement of cellular components Cytoskeleton
Maintains cell shape; aids in muscle contraction and intracellular movement; seperate dividing cells Microfilaments
Provides structural support;stabalize cell junctions Intermediate filaments
Support cell; holds organelles in place; maintain cell shape and rigidity;direct organelle movement w/in the cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella; move chromosomes at cell division Microtubules
Organizes microtubules; participates in spindle formation during cell division Centrosome
Organize microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes Centrioles
Move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell surface Cilia
Propels sperm cells in human male Flagellum
Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption and/or secretion Microvillo
Created by: baddkharma