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Microbe-Human Interaction

Two ways human host can acquire infections Exogenous & Endogenous
Characteristics of Exogenous infections Originate outside the body
Characteristics of Endogenous infections Originates from within the body
Resident flora are antagonistic; compete for space & nutrients;benefit the host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful organisms
Benefit of lactobacillus lactobacillus responsible for the fermentation of glycogen which keeps thepH in the vagina acidic thus preventing the overgrowth of candida albicans
Benefit of ecoli a protein produced by e-coli in the large intestine prevents groth of paathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Shigella
Streptococcus pneumoniae encapsulated gram + bacterium, naturally present in the upper resp tract; may be transmitted exogenously via hands, rubbing eyes, sneezing; can cause problems is it gets outside body or if host is in a weakened state
Opportunistic pathogen takes advantage of host in a weakened state
Microbial antagonism good microbes establish themselves in the host and prevent the invasion of pathogenic microbes
Examples of endogenous infections UTI's, staph & strep
Pneumocystitis jiroveci, although harmless to healthy individuals, causes pneumonia in AIDS patients and is their leading cause of death. This microbe is a (an) opportunistic pathogen
Viral attachment to host tissues and cells involves Spikes
Polysaccharide capsules of bacteria are considered antiphagocytic because they prevent adherence to the phagocyte
The exoenzyme coagulase, which is produced by staphylococcus aureus is considered an antiphagocytic factor because it hides the bacteria in clotted plasma proteins
Exotoxins that destroy red blood cells are called hemolysins
A primary resevoir of zoonotic infection is bird
What fomite involved in indirect contact transmission of disease fomites are inanimate objects = money
the most prevalent type of nosocomial infection is UTI
Lysozyme is a host enzyme found in host tears perspiration and tissue fluids. How is it used to protect the host? Lyse bacteria by degrading their cell walls
The complement system comprises a group of 26 blood proteins. How is it used to protect the host? Lyse bacteria with membrane-attack complexes
Which immune cells produce histamine and trigger the inflammatory response? basophils and mast cells
foreigh molecules, e.g. viral and bacterial proteins, that provoke an immune response are called antigens
what process terminates and immune response once the infection is cleared from the body? apoptosis of lymphocytes
Which immunoglobulin is a pentamer in the blood and is the first produced in response to an infection/ IgM
Which immunoglobulin is a monomer and is the most abundant in the blood and tissue fluids? IgG
Which immunoglobulin is a monomer in the blood, but is a dimer that is secreted in abundance on mucosal surfaces? IgA
All blood cells are produced from stem cells that are located in the bone marrow
T-lymphocytes mature in the thymus
the most common type of antigen presenting cell (APC) is the macrophage
A helper T lymphocyte uses cytokines to stimulate all of the following cells except Natural killer T cells
Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine tested successfully on a young boy in 1798 (Small pox)
The first vaccine was attenuated (a weakened state of the original)
The 'a' in the DTaP stands for acellular
Salk and Sabin vaccines were developed for polio
Which disease was completely eradicated in 1977? small pox
The coating of bacterial cells with antibodies, typically IgG or IgA, increases their adherence to phagocytes and enhances ingestion--this is known as opsonization
the antibgody IgM enhances phagocytosis during the early stages of infection by binding to and clumping together bacterial cells-this is known as agglutination
antibodies such as IgG and IgA prevent foreign microbes and molecules form damaging host cells and tissues by blocking attachment or entry--this is known as Neutralization
antibodies such as IgM stimulate a class of serum proteins to punch holes in the bacterial cell membrane and cause bacterial cell death-this is known as: Complement fixation
Created by: nana