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APES Ch4 Vocab Lytle

Lytle - APES Ch 4 Vocab

age structure diagram A population divided into groups by age. Sometimes the groups represent the actual number of each age in the population; sometimes the groups represent the percentage or proportion of the population of each age.
birth rate The rate at which births occur in a population, measured either as the number of individuals born per unit of time or as the percentage of births per unit of time compared with the total population.
crude birth rate (CBR) The number of births per 1,000 individuals per year.
child mortality rate The number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births.
crude death rate (CDR) The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.
death rate The rate at which deaths occur in a population, measured either as the number of individuals dying per unit time or as the percentage of a population dying per unit time.
demographic transition The pattern of change in birth and death rates as a country is transformed from undeveloped to developed. There are 3 stages. See the text for more info.
demographic transition stage 1 In an undeveloped country, birth and death rates are high and growth rate is low.
demographic transition stage 2 In a developing country, the death rate decreases, but the birth rate remains high and the growth rate is high.
demographic transition stage 3 In a developed country, the birth rate drops towards the death rate and the growth rate therefore also decreases.
developed country A country with relatively high levels of industrialization and income.
developing country A country with relatively low levels of industrialization and income.
doubling time Time it takes a population to double in size. Often calculated using the Rule of 70.
emigration Movement of people out of a country or region, to settle in another country or region.
exponential growth Growth in which the rate of increase is a constant percentage of the current size; that is, the growth occurs at a constant rate per time period. Graphing the population results in a J-shaped curve.
growth rate The net increase in some factor per unit time. In ecology, the growth rate of a population, sometimes measured as the increase in numbers of individuals or biomass per unit time and sometimes as a percentage increase in # or biomass per unit time.
human carrying capacity Theoretical estimates of the # of humans who could inhabit Earth at the same time.
immigration Movement of people into a country or region, having come from another country or region.
infant mortality rate The number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.
J-shaped curve The curve of the exponential growth model when graphed.
life expectancy The estimated average number of years (or other time period used as a measure) that an individual of a specific age can expect to live.
logistic carrying capacity In terms of the logistic curve, the population size at which births equal deaths and there is no net change in the population.
logistic growth curve The S-shaped growth curve that is generated by the logistic growth equation. In the logistic, a small population grows rapidly, but the growth rate slows down, and the population eventually reaches a constant size.
maximum lifetime Genetically determined max. possible age to which an individual of a species can live.
population A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area or interbreeding and sharing genetic information.
population dynamics The study of changes in population sizes and the causes of these changes.
replacement-level fertility The total fertility rate required to offset the average # of deaths in a population in order to maintian the current population size. (The average is just over 2-do you know why?)
species A group of individuals that are morphologically, genetically, and behaviorally similar enough to be capable of interbreeding and producing viable offspring.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) An estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth A population in which the number of births equals the number of deaths so that there is no net change in the size of the population.
Created by: jdlytle