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WVC OB Antepartum

WVC OB Antepartum Reading

QuestionAnswer
What is a Teratogen Teratogens are agents in the fetal environment that either cause a birth defect or increase teh likelihood that a birth defect will occur
What factors make it difficult to establish the teratogenic potential of an agent? Retrospective study, Timing of exposure, different susceptibility of organ systems, noncontrolled fetal exposure, placental transfer, individual variations, nontransferability of animal studies, Risk of damage from an uncontrolled maternal disorder
Retrospective study (refering to Teratogen) Investigators must rely on the mother's memory about substances she ingested or was exposed to during pregnancy.
Timing of exposure (refering to Teratogen) Agents may be harmful at one stage of prenatal development but not at another.
Different susceptibility of organ systems (refering to Teratogen) Some agents affect only one fetal organ system, or they affect one system if exposure occurs at a different stage of development.
Noncontrolled fetal exposure (refering to Teratogen) Exposures cannot be controlled to eliminate extraneous agents or to ensure a consistent does.
Placental Transfer (refering to Teratogen) Agents vary in their ability to cross the placenta.
Individual variations (refering to Teratogen) Fetuses show varing susceptibilty to harmful agents
Nontransferability of animal studies. (refering to Taratogen) Results of animal studies cannot always be applied to humans
Risk of damage from an uncontrolled maternal disorder (refering to Teratogen) Some maternal disorders, such as epilepsy or hypertension, may themselves cause fetal damage if not controlled, raising a question about whether the medication or the disorder causes the damage.
Teratogens: Typically cause more than one defect, which distinguishes teratogenic defects from multifactorial disorder. Children with a single gene & chromosome defects, however are also likely to have mutiple defects, often making diagnosis difficult.
Types of Teratogens: Maternal intectious agents (viruses or bacteria) that cross the placenta & damage the embryo or fetus. Drugs & other substances used by the woman (theraputic agents, illicit drugs, botanical preparations, tobacco, alcohol).
Types of teratogens: Pollutants, chemicals, or other substances to which to mother is exposed in her daily life. Ionizing radiation. Maternal hyperthermia, Effects of maternal disorders, such as diabetes mallitus or phenylketonuria
Is is possible to eliminate all or some of the risk factors to the developing fetus? Theoretically it is possible to eliminate all or some of the risk to the developing fetus by avoiding exposure to the agent or changing the fetal environment in some way.
Autosome Any of teh 22 pairs of chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
Conceptus Cells and membranes resulting from fertilization of the ovum at any stage of prenatal development.
Corpus Luteum Graafian Follicle cells remaining after ovulation. These cells produce estrogen and progesterone.
Diploid Having a pair of chromosomes (46 in humans) that represents one copy of every chromosome from each parent. The number of chromosomes normally present in body cells other than gametes.
Ejaculation Expulsion of semen from the penis
Embryo The developing baby from the beginning of the 3rd week through the 8th week after conception.
Endometrium Lining of the uterus.
Fertilization age Prenatal age of teh developing baby, Calculated fromteh date of conception. Also called postconceptional age.
Fetus The developing baby from 9 weeks after conception until birth. In every day practice this term is often used to describe a developing baby during pregnancy, regardless of age.
Gamete Reproductive cell: in the female an ovum, and in the male a spermatozoon.
Gestational age Prenatal age of the developing baby (measured in weeks) calculated fromteh 1st day of a woman's last menstrual period. Also called menstrual age, about 2 weeks longer than the fertilization age.
Graafian Follicle A small sac with in the ovary. The graafian follicle contains the maturing ovum.
Haploid Having one copy of a chromosome from each pair (23 in humans, or half a diploid number). Gametes normally have a haploid number of chromosomes.
Meiosis Reduction cell division in gametes that halves the number of chromosomes in each cell.
Mitosis Cell division in body cells other than the gametes.
Nidation Implantation of the fertilized ovum (zygote) in the uterine edometrium.
Oogenesis Formation of gametes (ova) in the female. begains in primitive ova (oogonia). Primary oocytes begains its first meiotic division during fetal life but does not complete the process until puberty (remaining dormant throughout childhood).
Ovulation Release of the mature ovum from the ovary.
Placenta Fetal structure that provides nourishemnt to and removes wastes from teh developing baby and secretes hormones necessary for the pregnancy to continue.
Sex Chromosome The X and Y chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one X and one Y chromosome.
Somatic Cells Body cells other than the gametes, or germ cells.
Spermatogenesis Formation of male gametes (sperm) in the testes. Begains in males during puberty. males can produce sperm through out their life.
Zygote Cell formed by union of an ovum and sperm.
When oocyte matures... two meitic divisions reduce the chromosome number from 46 pairs to 23 unpaired chromosomes: 22 autosomes and an X chromosome.
Primary oocyte vs polar body Primary oocyte is the functioning set of chromosomes. The polar body is the set of nonfunctioning chromosomes that is degerated.
what role do the two layers surounding the mature ovum called zona pellucida nd corona radiata do? These layers protect the ovum and prevent fertilization by more than one sperm.
Who determins sex of a child? Males
sperm are made up of 3 sections: Head, Middle section, tail. Where is the genetic material that is going to be passed on to the oocyt to form gamet held in the sperm? The head.
How long is an ovum viable? 24 hours after ovulation.
How long are sperm viable? Most sperm die after 1 or 2 days, but a few may remain fertile in a woman's reproductive trat up to 80 hours
Where are Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) produced? The woman's anterior pituitary gland
Where are estrogen adn progesterone produced before conseption occures? In the graafian follicle which contains the oocyte. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the endometrium for a possible pregnancy.
Created by: wvc