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ZOOL 320 - CH 20

Biology of Birds

example of altricial young tree swallow
example of precocial young snowy plover
eyes open, covered with feathers or down, leave nest after one or two days. precocial
eyes closed, little or no down, unable to leave nest, fed by parents: passerines altricial
covered with down, unable to leave nest, fed by parents semialtricial
eyes open, covered with down, able to walk but remain at nest are fed by parents: gulls, terns semiprecocial
Greater amount of yolk in eggs, yolk remaining at hatching, size of eyes and brain, and development of muscles precocial
greater size of gut and rate of growth after hatching altricial
characteristics of siblicidal birds: competition for food food provisioned in small packets weaponry competitive disparities spatial confinement
occurs when there is potential for uneven consumption of parental resources. sibling competition
killing a brother or a sister may be a common adaptive strategy among nestling birds, benefiting both the surviving offspring and the parents. avian sublicide
In Spring the birds orient toward the North
In Autumn the birds orient toward the South
migratory restlessness zugunruhe
Migrating birds orient by postion of Sun polarized light Earth's magnetic field infrasound
How songs influence male bird. identifies their species, sex, and occupancy of a territory.
usually the longest and most complex vocalization produced by a bird song
short, simple, stereotyped bird songs territorial songs
long, complex, variable bird songs sexual songs
birds are unique among sauropsids in having one-way flow of air through the lungs
avian air sac system: infraorbital sinus clavicular air sac axillary diverticulum into humerus sternal diverticulum cervical air sac cranial thoracic air sac caudal thoracic air sac abdominal air sac lung(only left side is shown)
leads to abdominal air sac mesobronchus
dorsobronchus and ventrobronchus are connected by this within lungs parabronchus
Air route is from bronchus to mesobronchus to abdominal air sac to dorsobronchus through parabronchi to ventrobronchus
breath of air stays in system for two complete cycles. new breath occurs with each inspiration. results in continuous one-way flow of air through the lungs two-cycle ventilation in birds
into lungs during ( ) out of lungs during ( ) expiration inspiration
occurs in each air capillary because gases in air capillary continuously encounter new supply of deoxygenated blood countercurrent
occurs because there is less oxygen in the distal air capillaries cross current
produced by ventral movement of sternum by contraction of intercostal muscles, and pulling up of ilium by contraction of longissimus dorsi inspiration
produced by relaxation of intercostal muscles, contraction of suprapubic and infrapubic abdominal muscles which pull the pelvis and tail downward expiration
furcula and coracoid spread and restore during wingbeat
sternum moves up and down during wingbeat
furcula spreads to inflate clavicular air sac, sternum elevates to compress posterior air sacs (anterior air sacs expanded, posterior collapsed) wing depressed
furcula collapses medially and sternum descends (posterior air sacs expanded, anterior collapsed) upstroke
Anatomic dead air space is that in which air is only pumped back and forth, about 30% in humans. Birds have about this amount much less
Created by: dominatrix