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Clin Lab II


Four methods of urine collection free catch, bladder expression, catheterization, cycstocentesis
Supplies for UA Gloves, microscope, slides, cover slips, pipettes, centrifuge tubes, refractometer, sedi-stain
UA container label should include Pt name, date, collection method
How long urine can be refrigerated 6-12 hrs
Sample left at room temp can have Increased bacteria, pH. Decreased glucose, biliruben. Crystal formation.
Physically observable properties of urine Volume, color, odor, transparency, specific gravity
Factors influencing urine volume Fluid intake, external loss (V+, D+), diet (carnivore, herbivore), environment (heat, humidity), size & species
Normal urine output for adult dogs and cats 20-40 ml/kd/day
Reasons for polyuria Diabetes Mellitus or Insipidus, nephritis, liver dz, diuretics (lasix) corticosteroids, fluids
Reasons for oliguria Decreased water intake, pyrexia, shock, heart dz, dehydration
urinary pigment urochromes
Pale yellow urine low SG, decreased urine concentration
Very yellow urine high SG, oliguria (yellow-brown)
Brown/Green urine bile pigment (plus green foam)
Red/Brown urine hematuria, hemoglobin
Brown urine myoglobin
Orange drugs, eg tetracycline
Horse urine is cloudy because contains calcium carbonate crystals and mucus
Rabbit urine is cloudy because contains calcium carbonate and triple phosphate crystals
Transparency can be described as clear, slightly cloudy, cloudy, turbid, flocculent
Cloudy urine can be caused by bacteria, crystals, RBCs, WBCs, epi cells, casts, mucus, fat, contaminants
Specific gravity defined as: weight of quantity of liquid compared with that of an equal amt of distilled water
Normal dog specific gravity 1.001 - 1.060, 1.025 typical
Normal cat specific gravity 1.001 - 1.080
Increased SG caused by Shock, acuter renal failure, decreased water intake, increased excretion of urine solutes or increased fluid loss other than urination.
Decreased SG caused by Diuretic therapy, renal dz, liver dz, diabetes, pyrometria-purulent, kidney inability to reabsorb water with increased fluid intake
Glomular filtrate SG 1.008-1.012
Isosthenuria when urine SG approaches that of glomular filtrate
Increased H+ ions in urine Increased acidity. pH >7 = alkaline, <7 = acidic
Factors increasing pH diet, stress or excitement in cats
Factors decreasing pH diet, fever, acidosis, starvation, muscular activity, prescription drugs
To test protein in urine reagent strip then Protein Determination by Sulfosalicylic Acid Turbidity test and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio
Additional causes for glucosuria fear or excitement in cats, IV flds containing glucose, general anesthesia
False glucosuria positives occur w some meds Vitamin C, morphine and derivatives, aspirin, penicillan, cephalasporins
Types of Ketones Acetone, Acetoacetic Acid, Beta-hydroxybutyric acid
Bile pigments detected in urine conjugated biliruben, urobilinogen
Bilirubin seen in urine with liver dz, hemolytic anemia, obstruction of bile flow from liver to sm intestines
Hemoglobinuria usually result of intravascular hemolysis. positive test for heomoglobin w out RBCs in urine sediment
Other causes of hemglobinuria leptospirosis, babesiosis, toxic plants, incompatable blood transfusions, immune mediated hemolytic anemia, isoimmune hemolytic dz of neonates.
When running urine sediment look for RBCs, WBCs, epi cells, casts, crystals
Lysed RBCs are referred to as Ghost Cells
Fresh sample RBCs appear small, round, smooth-edged, somewhat refractile, yellow-orange to clear. Creatination and slightly darker, almost grey in concentrated urine
Leukocytes larger than RBCs, spherical dull gray or greenish-yellow.
Three types of epithelial cells Squamous, transitional, renal
Casts are formed in lumen of distal collecting tubules
Seven types of casts Hyaline, granular, epithelial, leukocyte, erythrocyte, waxy, fatty
Hyaline casts clear, colorless, transparent, made of protein, cylindrical, parallel sides, ROUNDED ENDS, mild renal irritation. Increase w fever, poor renal profusion, strenuous exercise, general anesthesia
Granular casts hyaline casts with granules, most common, granules are epi cells, rbcs, wbc that become incorporated and degenerate. amt inc w nephritis. more severe than hyaline casts
Epithelial casts epi cells from renal tubules imbedded in hyaline matrix. inc w acute nephritis or degeneration of renal tubular epithelium ie neoplasi or malignancy
Leukocyte casts contain wbc, predominantly neutrophils, indicates inflammation of renal tubules
Erythrocyte casts Deep yellow to orange in color, indicates renal bleeding
Waxy casts wider than hyaline, SQUARE ENDS, dull homogenous, waxy appearance. HIGHLY REFRACTILE. indicate chronic, severe degeneration of tubules, renal failure
Fatty casts Contain small droplets that appear as refractile bodies. seen in cats w renal dz, occassional in dogs w DM, lots suggest degeneration of renal tubules
Struvite crystals triple phosphate or magnesium phosphate crystals. in slkealine to slightly acidic urine, 6-8 sided prisms like coffins
Amorphouse Phosphate in alkaline urine. appear as granule precipitate
Calcium carbonate in urine of horses and rabbits. of no clinical significance
Amorphous urates seen in acidic urine. appear as granule precipitate
Ammonium biurate in slightly acidic, neutral or alkaline urine, brown, round, long, irregular spicules. severe liver damage
Calcium oxalate "x" on crystal, in acidic and neutral urine, in dogs and some horses, large nbr w ethylene glycol poisoning (antifreeze)
Uric acid diamond to rhizoid shape, yellow or yellow-brown color, common only in dalmations
Leucine looks like flower, animals w liver dz
Tyrosine dark w needle projections, HIGHLY REFRACTILE, FOUND IN SMALL CLUSTERS, in animals w liver dz
Cystine flat and six sided, colorless, assoc with renal tubular dysfunction, not refractile
Created by: mfjasp