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soc of race/ethnic

sociology of race and ethnic relations

Colonialism: external and internal external: native group is conquered or controlled in their native country by foreign encroachers, ex: Mexicans, NA internal: native group is conquered and controlled in the country of the oppressor, ex: Africans
Racialization social process by which groups, whether defined by ethnicity, class or some other factor, come to be defined as a particular race within society by others in society
Extinction Thesis Thought blacks would be extinct in an amount of years, didn't look at why there were higher death rates in blacks/social issues that at the same time were causing blacks to die
NAFTA, and its affects on immigration North American Free Trade Agreement: eliminated national borders economically, there was less illegal immigration before NAFTA b/c there may have been more options in Mexico for work but the "no tariffs" allowed for less opportunity in Mexico/Canada
Miscegenation mixing of races that results in some prodigy, ex: blacks and whites during slavery ... many blacks today have lighter skin
biological facts about "race" only 1 out of 1000 nucleotides makes us different we have close to 35,000 genes that are alike only 0.01% of human genes reflect outside appearance 85% of any variation is b/w any 2 ppl of same race
Pre vs Post enlightenment views of race Pre-race was seen as divinely created Post-classification systems (racial), all races are variations of the white race, linking racial differences to qualitative attributes (emotions, intelligence, etc), beliefs based on biology
Du Bois' twoness of black American 2 souls, 2 thoughts, 2 unrecognized strings the idea of being seen yet not being seen the idea of being human and yet not being human
Du Bois' Double Consciousness living both as a Negro (ie the way others define you) and as American (ie the way you define yourself) fundamental condition of black citizenship the sense of always looking at oneself through the eyes of others
Du Bois' notion of the "veil" figurative boundary that prevented American society from seeing the Negro as human; as American implies that the Negro must hide his true self from white society
Market Period 1550s-late 1700s centered around Indian fur trade -incorporated into American economy -fur as linchpin-needed help from NAs -focused on LABOR of NAs only, not land
Conflict Period late 1700s-late 1800s -indian resources (mostly land) into the American economy -end of Anglo/Native partnership -characterized more by armed resistance to white encroachment -NAs no longer incorporated into economy, and had no political leverage
Reservation Period 1850s-1930s confinement of NAs to reservation forced assimilation due to loss of land increasing influence of gov. over NA people
Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) Period 1934-late 1940s Federally supported tribal governments development of the Tribal Nation Corporations revolving credit funds
Termination Period late 1940s-early 1960s retreat from supportive IRA policies major federal effort to dismantle reservations push for assimilation of Indians into larger society
Contemporary Period 1960s-NOW NAs trends to promote Indian self-determination demands for remaining Indian resources development of Supra-tribal politics/Pan-Indian identities
Agency self determination/independence the ability of a person/group to act on its own behalf, pursue its own interests, act independently, and make free choices
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva's New Racism New Racism -product of post-civil rights American society -biological ideas of racial inferiority are rejected -outward expression of racism is rejected -no privilege is attached to ones race -racial inequality explained as outcome of non racial dyna
Possessive Investment in whiteness Policies, programs, practices, that increase the absolute value of being white -1934 housing act -unions only for whites -"urban renewal" did not really take place -suburban housing prices doubled
Food Deserts chapt 25 Large contiguous area(s) with poor access to mainstream grocery stores or where grocery stores are distant
Food Imbalance chapt 25 areas that qualify as food deserts AND also include disproportionate numbers of unhealthy food
Difference between income and wealth Chapt 8 Income: tied to occupational status, day to day earnings Wealth: includes transformative assets, non-occupational assets (ie inheritances, stocks, bonds, homes)
Ethnic economies chap 31 the dominance of a particular ethnic group within a particular segment of the workplace
Ethnic economies specializations: Jews, blacks, Koreans chap 31 Jews: city jobs, teachers, police blacks: city jobs, hard labor Koreans: independently employed, fruit/vegetable stands
Beverly Daniel Tatum thesis (why are all the blacks kids sitting together in the cafeteria) Living in a racialized society encourages the development of a racial identity at an early age in children-especially black children
James Marcia's theory of identity development (stages) -Diffuse: little active consideration or psychological commitment to identity -Foreclosed: commitment has been made in some areas -Moratorium: state of active exploration of roles, beliefs but no commitment to them -Achieved: strong commitment to ident
The White Habitus Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (Racism without Racists) a racialized, uninterrupted social process that conditions and creates whites' racial tastes, perceptions, feelings, and emotions and their views on racial matters -shaped by: church, media, civil and gov. organizations, social organizations, schools
Amanda Lewis "schoolyard thesis" race [racial understanding] and racial inequality are reproduced in day to day life in schools -role schools play as Racializing Agents
Racial signification the way race comes to affect our understanding of ourselves and others and how, as part of that process, it simultaneously shapes our interactions and opportunities -children become racial subjects
Lewis and Jhally 3 central arguments Chap 36 RTCL -television is a primary vehicle for providing representations of raced other in society -contemporary images promote ideas of racial equality (Cosby show) -contemporary images disproportionately value middle class or wealthy statuses (no longer Roseann
Reparations “Any social project that carries with it an explicit intent to correct a specific wrong through collective action” -More generally reparations are social projects -given to NA, Jews, Japanese
Social Contract -the underlying agreement that allows order to be maintained in societies -requires the collective consent of members of society. -ex. stopping at red lights is part of our social contract or what is socially accepted
Hegemony (Hegemonic views) The dominance of a particular world-view such that is perspective becomes natural, taken for granted
Racial Contract -The construction of a particular morality -reflected in institutional practices -How government works -How society is structured -The operation of the racial hegemony promotes white supremacy
Similacrum (a copy that lacks an original) ex: buying a bootleg rolex watch. The quality is not the same. They are copies that don't have the intrinsic nature that makes a rolex a rolex. -says our foundational values of democracy and morality are similacrum
Joe Feagan's theories of race new racism based on the Jim Crow laws and racism of the past -instituted into our schools, laws, etc. (other institutions)
Joe Feagan's solution -- education -equal funding for schools (poorer and rich/suburban schools) -unsegregate schools, make them more ethnically/racially/(economically) mixed
Eduardo Bonilla Silva's Latin Americanization -the US system of race is beginning to resemble that of Latin America -Latin America as a 'tri-racial' system where phenotype is an important determinant of membership -Latin Americans strongly identify with the nation and hold a colour-blind perspectiv
William Julius Wilson's Declining Significance of Race Race is no longer that significant, what is more important now is the social classes and distribution of wealth
Joe Feagan's Two-Faced Racism trying to show that you are not racist in the "frontstage" but in doing so show something about the racist sentiments in the "backstage" -ex: trying to speak in a dialect one would assume another race has; being outwardly "nice" to every black person;
Colorblind racism pretending not to notice skin color. denial of physical racial differences in order to seem not racist, but in doing so, admitting to racist stereotypes
Jay MacLeod (Ain’t No Makin It) theories -If you don't aspire to upward mobility positions, you wont get them -hopes are linked to opportunities provided to you -the social class into which one is born has a massive influence on where one will end up
Created by: ibrookens