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pols 101 freemuth

final

QuestionAnswer
public opinion the collective attitudes concerning a given issue or question.
skewed distribution
bimodal distribution
normal distribution
stable distribution
political socialization the complex process by which people acquire their political values.
socioeconomic status position in society based on a combination of education, occupational status, and income.
self-interest principle the implication that people choose what benefits the personally.
issue framing politicians and media using wording to make things appear one way to gain support.
mass media the means employed in mass communication print and broadcast..
attentive policy elites group leaders who follow news in specific areas. b) Policy elites then influence public opinion by circulating their views in the mass media.
two step flow of communication model emphasizes that ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, from opion leaders to general masses.
blogs are accessible to everyone and are not subject to commericals and politcal correctness.
newsworthiness the degree to which a news story is important enough to be covered in the mass media
market-driven journalism the way that news and commercials are targeted to specific demographic groups
infotainment infotainment , which is a mix of information and diversion oriented to personalities or celebrities, not linked to the day’s events, and usually unrelated to public affairs or policy; often called “soft news”
Federal Communications Commission fcc-An independant federal agency that regulateds interstand and international communication by radio television, telephone, telegraph, cable and satellite
gatekeepers Big media are gatekeepers who influence and impact the flow of information to the masses
horse race journalism election coverage by mass media that focuses on who is ahead rather than the issues.
media event 1. An occasion that attracts prominent coverage by news organizations: "It was a media event with flowing blood and absurdist overtones
television hypothesis the belief that television is to blame for the low level of citizen's knowledge about public affairs.
political agenda A list of issues that need govt attention.
watchdog journalism Journalism that scrutinizes public and business institutions and piblicizes perceived misconduct.
interest group an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy. Also called a lobby.
lobbies a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by legislators and officials in the government by individuals, other legislators, constituents, or advocacy groups
lobbyist Representative of an interest group.person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments often define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential.
agenda building focuses on how news covers and reflects influences government officials decision makers and elitist.
program monitoring Congress passes law and assigns commitee to monitor programs.
interest group Advocacy groups (also pressure groups, lobbyists use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political
free-rider problem When groups or people consume more than their fair share of a resource.
trade associations Trade associations are organizations that represent firms within a specific industry
political action committee an organization that pools campaign contributions from group members and donates those funds to candidates for political office.
direct lobbying attempting to influence a legislators vote through personal contact with the legislator.
information campaigns An organized effort to gain public backing by bringing a groups views to public attention.
coalition building The banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying.
citizen group lobbying organization built around policy concerns unrelated to members vocational interests.
civil liberties Freedoms guarenteed to individuals
civil rights powers or priveges guarenteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of government or individuals.
establishment clause The first clause in the first amendment which forbids government establishment of religion
free-exercise clause The second clause in the first amendment which prevents the fovernment from interfering with the exercise of religion.
strict scrutiny A stamdard used by the supreme court in deciding whether a law or polic is to by adjudged constitutional. To pass strict scrutiny. The law or policy must be justified by a a compelling governmental interest least.
free expression clauses The press and speech clauses of the first amendment
prior restraint censorship before publication
clear and present danger test a MEANS BY WHICH THE SUPREME COURT HAS DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN SPEECH AS THE ADVOCACY OF IDEAS WHICH IS PROTECTED BY THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND SPEECH AS INCITEMENT WHICH IS NOT PROTECTED
fighting words
public figures PEOPPLE WHO ASSUME ROLES OF PROMINENCE IN SOCIETY OR THRUST THEMSELVES INTO THE FOREFRONT OF PUBLIC CONTROVERSY
bills of attainer LAW THAT PRONOUNCES AN INDIVIDUAL GUILTY WITHOUT A TRIAL
ex post facto A LAW THAT DECLARES AN ACTION TO BE CRIMINAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN PERFORMED
obligation of contracts THE OBLIGATION OF THE PARTIES TO A CONTRACT TO CARRY OUT ITS TERMS
Miranda warnings STATEMENTS CONCERNING RIGHTS THAT THE POLICE ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE TO A PERSON BEFORE HE OR SHE IS SUBJECT TO IN-CUSTODY QUESTIONING.
EXCLUSIONARY RULE THE JUDICIAL RULE THAT STATES THAT EVIDENCE OBTAINED IN AN ILLEGAL SEARCH AND SIEZURE CANNOT BE USED IN TRIAL.
GOOD FAITH EXCEPTION AN EXCEPTION TO THE SUPREME COURT EXCEPTIONARY RULE,HOLDING THHAT EVIDENCE SEIZED ON THE BASIS OF A MISTAKENLY ISSUED SIERCH WARRANT CAN BE INT
PUBLIC POLICY A general plan of action adopted by the government to solve a social problem, counter a threat, or pursue an objective
REGULATION rules that guide the operation of govt programs and business markets.
AGENDA SETTING The state of the policymaking process during which problems get defined as political issues.
ISSUE DEFINITION
POLICY FORMULATION The stage of the policy making process during which formal proposals are developed and adopted.
IMPLEMENTATION the process of putting specific policies into operation
POLICY EVALUATION Analysis of a public policy so as to determine how well it is working.
FEEDBACK information rec'd by policy makers about the effectiveness of public policy
FRAGMENTATION In policy making, the phenomenon of attacking a single problem in different and sometimes competing ways.
ISSUE NETWORK A shared knowledge group consisting of representatives of various interests involved in some particular aspect of public policy.
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION an organization formed to promote a cause in which no profit is given to those involved, but the proceeeds go toward the goal set by the non profit.
ECONOMIC DEPRESSION A recession that lasts longer and does not bounce back quickly
INFLATION an economic condtion characterized by price increases linked to a decrease in the value of currency.
BUSINESS CYCLES normal highs and lows that wave up and down over time.
KEYNESIAN THEORY An economic theory stating that the govt can stabilize the economy by smoothing business cycles by controlling the level aggregate demand by the means of fiscal and monetary policies.
FISCAL POLICIES Economic policies that involve government spending and taxation
MONETARY POLICIES Economic policies that involve control and changes in the supply of money.
DEFICIT FINANCING The keynesian technique of spending beyond govt income to combat an economic slump. its purpose is to inject extra money in the economy to stimulate aggregate demand.
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS CEA a group that works within the executive branch to provide advice on manitaining a stable economy
FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM A sustem of banks that act as central bank of the united states that controls major monetary policies.
FISCAL YEAR September 30- October 1 used by the govt for accounting purposes
BUDGET AUTHORITY The amounts that government agencys are allowed to spend for current
BUDGET OUTLAYS The amounts that government agencies are expected to spend in a fiscal year.
RECEIPTS The amount expected or obtained through taxes and other revenues
FEDERAL DEBT the accumulated sum of past govt borning that remains to be paid.
oFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET The budgeting arm of the executive that prepares the president budget.
TAX COMMITEES the two commitees of Congress responsible for raising the revenue with which to run the govt.
AUTHORIZATION COMMITEES Commitees of congress that can authroize spending in their particular areas of responsiblity.
APPROPRIATION COMMITEES commitees of congress that decide which of the programs passed by the authorization commitees will actually be funded
BUDGET COMMITEE one commitee in each house of congress that supervises a comprehensive budget review process
cONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE CBO The budgeting arm of congress which prepares alternate budgets that differ from the president OMB
MANDATORY SPENDING. In the budget enforcement act of 1990 must take care of previous expenditures
DISCRETIONARY SPENDING bea-authorized expenditures from annual appropriation.
ENTITLEMENT Benefit to which every eligible person has a legal right and that the govt cannot deny without changing the law.
PAY AS YOU GO BEA 1990-the req that any tax cut or expansion of entitlement must be offset by a tax increase or other savings.
INCREMENTAL BUDGETING a method of budget making that involves new funds onto the amount previously budgeted in last years budget.
EAR MARK When a representative or senator writes legislation which includes finances for something that benefits them locally.
DISCRETIONARY OUTLAYS Money that is allocated for things such as defense, etc....It is one of the the reasons that the budget is hard to balance
MANDATORY OUTLAYS money that is set out and appropriated for prior commitments
Created by: miss rhonda