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Patho, GU, Neuro

Pathophysiology final @ UTA Fall 2010

Male GU problems Testicular cancer Prostate problems Infections (urethritis, prostatitins)
Testicular cancer Younger man; usually painless mass cryptorchidism high cure when cough early (self exam)
Cryptorchidism Undescended testicles Increases risk for testicular cancer (Self exam)
Prostate problems BPH: Proliferation of prostate tissue Common in men over 50 Cancer: Diet high is saturated fat, high testosterone
Diagnostic of prostate problems High PSA (prostate specific antigen)
S&S of BPH (Benign prostate hyperplasia) weak urine flow Slow to start flow urinary retention Hydronephrosis due to back up of urine
Male urogenital infections most often caused by STI Chlamydia & gonorrhea. which cause urethritis and prostatitis.
Female GU problems Uterus problems Ovarian cancer PID infection (Pelvic Inflamatory Disease) Urologic infections menopause
GU problems in the uterus Dysminorrhea: Painful, heavy periods Amenorrhea: No periods Endometriosis: Ectopic endometrium in pelvis during monthly hormonal cycle ( Can lead to infertility
Ovarian cancer Vague S&S. Vague Abdominal disconfort, constipation. often not dx till reaches liver
PID Infection (Pelvic Inflamatory Disease) Infection of uterus, fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. often caused by chlamydia
Menopause Atrophy of the ovaries no estrogen, no bone build-up leading to osteoclast activity and osteoporosis
Hydronephrosis can lead to malfunction of nephron and renal failure
causes of hydronephrosis any urinary obstructive disorder that makes fluid back up to the kidney.
Lithiasis Kidney stones. also called, calculi. name can be in reference of the location of the calculi
Causes of Lithiasis dehydration, hyperuricemia hypercalcemia desorders such as multiple myeloma
Glomerulonephitis Inflamation of the glomerulus Most often caused by Post-strep autoinmune disorder
S&S of glomerulonephitis hematuria hyperproteinuria oligurea (due to less GFR)
Nephotic syncope when glomerular problems result in urine proteins levels greather than 3.5gm S&S are similar to glomerulonephitis
S&S Renal failure Edema electrolite problems (Hyperkalemia) low gravity oligurea High BUN & Creatine (azotemia) Uremia (azotemia + other S&S)
Types of renal failure ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Prerenal Intrarenal Postrenal CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE (CKD) (CRD)
Acute renal failure Oligurea that occurs abruptly due to prerenal, intrarenal or postrenal causes
Prerenal (acute renal failure) problem of blood flow to kidneys S&S dehydration If not fixed patient can develop CKD with fluid overload
Intrarenal (acute renal failure Tubular necrosis (ATN) cells will cast and cause ischemia and necrosis Most often a direct trauma but can be caused by worsen prereanal and postrenal problems S&S: oligurea, high BUN/creatine cast in urine
Postrenal (acute renal failure) Obstruction causes backup of urine into kidney (Hydronephrosis) that interferes with tubular function
Chronic Kidney disease CKD chronic renal failure CRF progressive disease of nephron failure,caused by ARF not treated properly, HTN, Diabetes and more
S&S CKD, CRF Oliguria or anuria Azotemia (High BUN & creatine) uremia (azotemia+ other S&S) Fluid & electrolyte imbalances ruritis (precipitation of urea on skin) Neurologic changes anemia (less EPO)
Treatment of CKD CRF Dialysis treat the symptoms Restrict K, Na, & H2O in diet Give phosphate-binding antiacids Give Ca & Vit D Give EPO anti HTN and non-K sparing diuretics
ophthalmologic disorders Mydriasis "pupil dilation" Miosis "Pupil constriction" Abnormal assestment "Laxk of contriction to light would be and ipsilateral finding"
Mydriasis Pupil dilation Sympathetic response that occurs upon exposure to darkness
Miosis Pupil constriction Parasympatetic response that occurs to exposure to light
CPP & ICP Craneal Perfusion Pressure & Intracraneal pressure CPP is trelated to BP and increased or reduces ICP. Low ICP: B/c low BP Low CPP = hupovolemia, atherosclerosis High ICP: due to high BP/ High ICP: Causes intracerebral bleeding & edema
IICP S&S Increased intracerebral pressure Change level of conciousness Cheyne strokes Babinski's reflex Papilledema Diffuse problem Confusion, decreased LOC, Fairly simetrical reflexes Focal problems Where in the lesion: Contralateral below neck and ipsilateral above neck
Cheney strokes Altered breathing pattern in comatose state
Babinski's Indicates brain lesson Plantar reflex loss of essential reflexes cough gag swallowing
Treatment of ICP toward lowering ICP keep head of bed ~30 degrees stable BP diuretics
Types of Ischemic stroke Thrombolitic Thrombus going in arteries Embolitic Clot that breack off a thrombus "a-fib TIA "Transien ischemis attack NOT a true stroke
types of hemorrhagic stroke Intracerebral bleeding from head injury, burst aneurysm, HTN, coagulation dissorders
Hemispheric strokes paresis on contralateral side below neck paresis on ipsilateral side above neck hemisphere-specific probelms Right or left
aphasia and inability to do math Lesion in left hemisphere
lesion in right hemisphere (hemisphere specific problems) Decrease in spatial understanding insight into condition left-side neglet
Cerebellar stroke Vertigo Nystagmus loss of balance
Brain stem stroke respiratory problems CV problems CN problems
Treatment of stroke Clot-busting drugs anticoagulants Surgery Any intervention that help decrease hypoxia & IICP such as HOB up, Give O2 BP management
Alzheimer's Degenerative disease of brain Type of dementia caused by abnormal accumulation of amyloid in brain tissue and presence of neurofibrillary tangles inside cell bodies of neurons in brain S&S Severe memory, behavioral and motor changes
Parkinson's Degenerative disease of brain caused by decreased dopamine in the basal ganglion of the brain having too much ACH exitating other cells S&S Circuit overload Rigidity "cog-wheel rigidity" Slow movement dyskinesia shuffling gait Tx give dopamine and ACH meds
Multiple Sclerosis Degenerative disease of brain T cells attack myelin sheaths of random axons in brain affecting areas of body controlled by those neurons by interrupting signals or slowing them down S&S Asymmetric weakness of an extremity, Bladder problems, ataxia, vision problems
Migraines Headache syndrome due to vasoconstriction of brain vessels due to serotonin or vasodilation due to prostaglandis
Seizures Sudden, chaotic discharge of neurons in brain Epilepsy if chronic general (unconscious, tonic-clonic movement) Partial usually local and concious post-ictal state after seizure and characterized by groggy and confusion
Meningitis infection or inflammation of the meninges cause cerebral edema S&S photophobia, headache, irritability, resrlessness, confusion, neck stiffness Possitive brudzinski's and Kernig's signs High protein in CSF Hing WBCs, low glucose
myasthenia gravis caused by autoantibodies that destroy ACH receptors, at the distal end of neuromuscular junction S&S Weakness that gets worse with activity Tx cholinesteraseto increase ACH in in junction or thymectomy to decrease T cells
hyperthyroidism state of excess of T3 and T4 secreted by thyroid gland S&S metabolism overdrive, nervousness, irritability, tachicardia, increased apetite but patient stays thin & fatigued, tissue build-up behind eyes, sweating, warm skin, HIGH T4 and LOW TSH
graves' disease common cause of hyperthyroidism. autoantibodies mimic TSH fittingin TSH receptors in thyroid causing it to over-secrete T3 & T4
Thyroid Storm Extreme version of hyperthyroidism extreme tachicardia HF Shock Temp of 104-105 agitation delirium seizures
Hypothyrodism Low thyroid hormone secretion Caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis endemic iodine S&S opposite to hyperthyroidism bloated face apareance "myxidema LOW T4 & HIGH TSH Extreme version myxidema crisis, or coma goiter Tx thyroid meds
Hyperthyroidism caused by pituitary Hypersecretion of TSH both TSH and T4 will be high Hyposecretion of TSH is not a pituitary problem neither thyiroid
Calcium movement PTH increases movement of Ca from bone to blood calcitoning does the opposite
PTH Increases Ca in blood too much hypercalcemia leading to kidney stones, hyperpolarization of cells "weakness, lethargy," also osteoporosis Low PTH Opossite, tetany, muscle spams, positive Chvostek's Hypopolarization
Resorption bringing something back into blood, most often refers to Ca coming into blood from bone "bone resorption
Created by: EArteaga
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