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Geography test 3

test 3

• Russian Tsars o Powerful land-owning aristocracy o Majority of population were peasants o Collapsed in 1917
• Bolsheviks o Took over – a new socialist state • A fraction of Russian communist representing the interest of industrial workers • Leader: Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
• Joseph Stalin o (1930s) o Centralized power in Moscow o Enlarged size of Soviet Union • Baltic, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia o Asserted Russian authority
• Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (Lenin) o Leader of the Bolsheviks o Took over → a new socialist state
• Boris Yeltsin o Democratic Election o December 1991 → all 15 Republics had become independent state and USSR ceased to exist
• Iron Curtain o Western boundaries of the Soviet power in Europe o After WWII
• Chechnya o Ethically, linguistically, religiously → NOT Russia • Most Sunni Muslim • December 2004: Yeltsin ordered invasion to restore order
• Command Economy o A centrally planned and controlled economy • Socialist or communist countries • All goods, services, agriculture, and industrial products are owned and controlled by the central government
• Privatization o Transfer to private ownership of those firms and industries previously owned and run by state
• Oligarchs o Opportunists took advantage of weak economic controls (acquired large components of energy industry)
• Geographic Proximity o Links to global economy • Oil and gas industry • Transmission lines • Shipping routes
• Chernobyl o 1986 – Meltdown • Radiation Poisoning • Radioactive fallout over geographical area o Worst disaster in history of nuclear power o Tons of radioactive fuel instantly evaporated
• Russification o Soviet policy moved Russians into non-Russian portions of USSR to Increase Russian dominance
• Ethnic Enclaves o A neighborhood district, or suburb which retains some cultural distinction from a larger, surrounding area • Russian Enclaves in U.S.: • Brooklyn, NY → Brighton Beach
• Ring of Fire o Large number of earthquakes and volcanoes
• Tsunami o A large wave caused by the displacement of large volume of a body of water; can be a series of waves
• Anthropogenic Landscapes o Human Transformation especially in China and Japan
• Pollution Exporting o Relocated dirtier industrial operations to other countries (primary Southeast Asia)
• Mao Zedong o Communism o Believed that a larger population would play into the hands of capitalist economies o 1943 – proclaims the birth of the Peoples’ Republic of China, Shek fled to Taiwan
One-Child” policy o Have only one off-spring, or suffer financial penalties • Lack tax advantages, education offspring
• Ideographical writing o Form of writing using symbols to represent whole words or ideas, rather than sound • Disadvantages → large number of characteristics to learn • Advantages → speakers of different languages use same writing system
• Confucianism o Philosophy developed by Confucius has a strong influence on the region • Foster social stability • Obedience to authority • Authority figures must act in a caring matter • Education matters
• Buddhism o Diffused to China from India by 2nd century A.D. • Widespread throughout the region • Nonexclusive: Buddhists be professing forth in another regions
• Shinto o Closely bound to Japanese nationality o Harmony and nature and its connection to humans
• Taoism o Rooted in nature worship o Feng Shui – Practice of designing buildings in accordance with spiritual powers that flow through the local topography
• Dynasty o Succession of rulers comes from the same line of descent, often endured for centuries
• Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220A.D.) • Expands to interior of Asia • Confucian principals • Trade expanded (the silk road)
• Ming Dynasty (1368 A.D. – 1644 A.D.) • Exploration – Major advantages in science technology • Farming expands (silk and cotton) • Built defensive walls o Forbidden City o Great Wall
• Qing (Manchu) Dynasty (1644 A.D. – 1911 A.D.) • Geographical expansion into Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, Taiwan • European Colonial pressures
• Opium Wars o Resulting in Colonization o Colonial power had no formal political authority, but did have informal influence and tremendous economic clout • British Influence • Shanghai • Hong Kong
• The Demilitarized Zone o Division of Korea • Divided by U.S. and Soviet Union after Korean War • 1950 – the north wanted to unify the country again, resulting in War • 38th Parallel • U.S. remains in South Korea
• Diwali o “Festival of Lights” o 5 day festival in Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism o Celebration of the victory of good over evil; the uplifting of spiritual darkness
• Sherpa o Ethnic group o Most mountainous region → Nepal o Expert in terrain, and master mountaineers o Hemoglobin-binding enzymes → genetic advantage o Known for hard work, and sense of humor o Tenzing Norgay • First Sherpa to reach peak of Mt. Everest
• Terracing o Rice / Wheat / Millet
• Monsoon o Distinct seasonal change of wind direction (brings change in precipitation) • Dominate climate factor of a region • Summer monsoon = rain & flooding • Winter monsoon = dry
• Onographic precipitation o Precipitation from uplift and cooling of moist winds
• Rain-shadow effect o Area of low rainfall on the leeward (downward) side of the mountain range
o Shiva Destroyer
o Vishnu preserver
Brahma creater
• Hinduism /Hindu Culture Reincarnation and working toward it Salvation – freedom from cycle Complex and varied religion North America U.K. No single one founder Oldest religion World’s 3/4 LARGEST religion India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bali, Indonesia Deities/Devas = many a
• Green Revolution o Agriculture techniques based on hybrid crops, heavy use of industrialized fertilizers and chemical pesticides
• Bustees o Sprawling squatter homes • Urban areas
• Sanskrit o Language o Over 10,000 years old
• Karma action” or “deed” • Cause and effect • Humans have freewill • Choose good / evil o Consequences / benefits
• Caste System strict division of Hindu society into ranked/hierarchical hereditary groups • Born into and die in • Determines and shapes o Status o Jobs o Marriage
• Sikhism o Faith incorporating elements of Hinduism and Islam • Punjab: 1400s • 75% of Sikh’s still live there Many Muslims feel → “corruption” / “delusion” Sacred Temple: Golden Temple, Amritsar o Men → soldiers, bodyguards Do not cut hair Wrapped in a tur
• Mughal Empire o 1500s o Powerful state o Islam
• British East Indian Company o A private organization; acted as an arm of the British government and monopolized and traded • Sepoy Mutiny (1857)
• Kashmir o British Rule: Ruled by British Hindu Maharaja o Mostly Muslim province joined India o Independence? o Join India?
• Punjab o Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhism o Hasty Boundaries and Partition • Migration o Issue of Sikh autonomy
• Tamil Tigers o (Dravidian) o Pioneered several terrorist techniques • Assassinated Rajiv Gandhi o Defeated → 2009 • Resurgence
• Typhoons o Tropical hurricanes that bring heavy rainfall to the northern reaches of insular Asia • Islands experience very little seasonality (equatorial influence) • Compared to Mainland
• Transmigration o A country’s policy of relocation of its population from one region to another within its national territory
• Crony Capitalism o System in which close friends of a political leader are either illegally given business advantages in return for their political support
• Entrepot o A Port where goods are imported, stored, and transported • Import raw materials and unfinished goods • Added value through processing, refining, and manufacturing • Sell for a profit • Singapore initially
• “Disneyesque” city o Government involved in nearly all aspects of business and social life o Singapore: • One of the world’s cleanest, safest, and most orderly cities
• The Karen o Indigenous people to the Thai/Burma border • Animism and Buddhist religion • Tribal religions based on worship of natures spirits and human ancestors o Geopolitical Issues • Burmese consider Karen culture inferior
• Domino Theory o Fear that if Vietnam fell to communism the rest of Southeast Asia would follow
• City-State o An independent entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administrated as part of another local government • Singapore
• Khmer Rouge o Cambodia • 1975: Communist revolutionaries that overthrew the military regime • Leader: Pol Pot o Attempted to reconstruct country to a rural society • Drove people from tokens to the country with no place to live/work (terroristic methods)
• Micronesia o “Small Islands”
• Polynesia o “Many Islands”
• Melanesia o “Dark Islands”
• Outback o Australia’s thinly settled, huge interior
• Ayers Rock (Uluru) o Sandstone Formation o An “island” mountain: an isolated remnant from erosion of larger formation o Erosion is still occurring
• High Islands o Volcanoes that rise to high elevation and cover large areas
• Atoll o The combination of narrow sand islands, barrier coral reefs, and central lagoons
• The Great Barrier Reef o Lies along the eastern Queensland coast o Coral reef building o Can be seen from space
• Invasive species o Threaten native species • Rabbits • Brown Tree Snake • Cane Toads
• Aborigine o Ancestors of today’s native Australian population made their way into the region around 40,000 years ago
• Indigenous People o People who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection
• Self-Determination o Embodies the right for all people to determine their own economic, social, and cultural development
• The Stolen Generation o Aboriginal Protection Act 1869-1969 • Removed “half-casts” from their families to force them to assimilate into white society • Today many Aborigines do not know their family origin
• Cold War o (1946-1991) o The Ideological struggle between U.S. and Soviet Union • Nuclear Power • Space Race • Sports (Olympics) → dominated
Created by: kristenenderlin