Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Epidemio, Ethics USM

Question | Answer |
---|---|

differentiate bw prevalence and incidence | prevalence is the no of cases at a given time, incidence is the no of new cases over a period of time |

define PPV in words, in eqn | probability of those w + test really have dz; those + tests with dz divided by everybody who had a + test |

how does prevalence affect PPV | higher prevalence, higher PPV |

how does specificity affect PPV | higher specificity, higher PPV |

define NPV in words, in eqn | probability that those w - test really don't have dz; those - tests without dz divided by everybody w - test |

how does sensitivity affect NPV | the more sensitive the test, the higher the NPV |

how does prevalence affect NPV | the lower the dz prevalence, the lower the NPV |

what's + likelihood ratio tell you (in words) | for a + test, the ratio of those that have the dz v. those that don't [true + / false +] |

what's + likelihood ratio in an eqn | eqn= + test + dz / + test - dz |

define + likelihood ratio in terms of sensitivity and specificity | sensitivity / (1-specificity) |

define specificty in words, in eqn | probability pt + dz will have + test; % of ppl w dz whose test is + [= + dz + test / all + dz ] |

define sensitivey in words, in eqn | probability pt - dz will have - test; % ppl - dz w - test [= - dz - test / all - dz] |

explain how raising the glu cut-off for DM will affect false negatives and false positives | fewer false positives, more false negatives |

explain how raising the glu cut-off for DM dx affects sensitivity and specificity, PPV and NPV | lower sensitivity, higher specificity, higher PPV, lower NPV |

what's - likelihood ratio tell you (in words) | for a - test, the ratio of those that have the dz v. those that don't [true - / false -] |

what's - likelihood ratio in an eqn | eqn= - test + dz / - test - dz |

define - likelihood ratio in terms of sensitivity and specificity | eqn=(1-sensitivity) / specificity |

what is the pretest probability | dz prevalence |

what's absolute risk | incidence of dz |

what's attributable risk? Aka? Eqn | risk difference, how much the risk of the dz is due to exposure; =incidence in ppl exposed - incidence in ppl not exposed |

what is relative risk? Aka? Eqn | risk ratio, how much more likely an exposed grp is to get the dz than unexposed; = incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed |

what type of studies report odds ratios, what does it mean | cohort study; relative risk of person w dz to have had exposure vs. person w/o dz to have had exposure |

eqn for odds ratio | AD/BC |

define odds in terms of probability | odds=probability/(1-probability) [ie probability it will happen/probability it won't happen] |

eqn for probability in terms of odds | probability= odds/(1+odds) |

define alpha error, beta error | alpha=type I; saying there's a diff when there really isn't one; beta=type II, saying there's no diff when there really is one |

what are essential elements of informed consent | BRAIN=Benefits, risks, alternatives, indications, nature of intervention |

difference bw competence and decision making capacity | competence is pt's legal capacity to make decisions, as assessed by court; decision making capacity is the medical term |

DNI and DNR are exs of | living will |

difference bw wdrawal of care and withholding care | none legally |

define therapeutic privilege | MD can withhold info from pt if the info would severely harm them or undermine their decision making capacity |

what are 4 key components of malpractice lawsuit | duty, dereliction of duty, damage, and the damage was directly caused by dereliction of duty |

what's the burden of proof for malpractice | preponderance of evidence (not beyond a reasonable doubt) |

Created by:
ehstephns