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# Epidemio, Ethics USM

differentiate bw prevalence and incidence prevalence is the no of cases at a given time, incidence is the no of new cases over a period of time
define PPV in words, in eqn probability of those w + test really have dz; those + tests with dz divided by everybody who had a + test
how does prevalence affect PPV higher prevalence, higher PPV
how does specificity affect PPV higher specificity, higher PPV
define NPV in words, in eqn probability that those w - test really don't have dz; those - tests without dz divided by everybody w - test
how does sensitivity affect NPV the more sensitive the test, the higher the NPV
how does prevalence affect NPV the lower the dz prevalence, the lower the NPV
what's + likelihood ratio tell you (in words) for a + test, the ratio of those that have the dz v. those that don't [true + / false +]
what's + likelihood ratio in an eqn eqn= + test + dz / + test - dz
define + likelihood ratio in terms of sensitivity and specificity sensitivity / (1-specificity)
define specificty in words, in eqn probability pt + dz will have + test; % of ppl w dz whose test is + [= + dz + test / all + dz ]
define sensitivey in words, in eqn probability pt - dz will have - test; % ppl - dz w - test [= - dz - test / all - dz]
explain how raising the glu cut-off for DM will affect false negatives and false positives fewer false positives, more false negatives
explain how raising the glu cut-off for DM dx affects sensitivity and specificity, PPV and NPV lower sensitivity, higher specificity, higher PPV, lower NPV
what's - likelihood ratio tell you (in words) for a - test, the ratio of those that have the dz v. those that don't [true - / false -]
what's - likelihood ratio in an eqn eqn= - test + dz / - test - dz
define - likelihood ratio in terms of sensitivity and specificity eqn=(1-sensitivity) / specificity
what is the pretest probability dz prevalence
what's absolute risk incidence of dz
what's attributable risk? Aka? Eqn risk difference, how much the risk of the dz is due to exposure; =incidence in ppl exposed - incidence in ppl not exposed
what is relative risk? Aka? Eqn risk ratio, how much more likely an exposed grp is to get the dz than unexposed; = incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed
what type of studies report odds ratios, what does it mean cohort study; relative risk of person w dz to have had exposure vs. person w/o dz to have had exposure
define odds in terms of probability odds=probability/(1-probability) [ie probability it will happen/probability it won't happen]
eqn for probability in terms of odds probability= odds/(1+odds)
define alpha error, beta error alpha=type I; saying there's a diff when there really isn't one; beta=type II, saying there's no diff when there really is one
what are essential elements of informed consent BRAIN=Benefits, risks, alternatives, indications, nature of intervention
difference bw competence and decision making capacity competence is pt's legal capacity to make decisions, as assessed by court; decision making capacity is the medical term
DNI and DNR are exs of living will
difference bw wdrawal of care and withholding care none legally
define therapeutic privilege MD can withhold info from pt if the info would severely harm them or undermine their decision making capacity
what are 4 key components of malpractice lawsuit duty, dereliction of duty, damage, and the damage was directly caused by dereliction of duty
what's the burden of proof for malpractice preponderance of evidence (not beyond a reasonable doubt)
Created by: ehstephns
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