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Immune System / HIV / Opportunistic Infections

development of HIV antibodies; flu-like syndrome 1-3 weeks after injection Seroconversion
*diagnositic tests ( most common) used to diagnose HIV & AIDS. *2 month window between infection and detection *positive detection takes between 2 weeks- 6 months ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and is confirmed by Western Blot Assay or Immunofluorenscence Assay (IFA)
Opportunistic Infection *gradual worsening tightening in chest and SOB *persistent, dry, non-productive cough, rales * dyspnea and tachypnea *low-grade/high fever *progressive hypoxemia and cyanosis pneumocystis carinii (pneumonia)
CD4+T cells count drops below 500-600; oral thrush, headache, aseptic meningitis, peripheral neuropathies; cranial nerve palsy Early Disease detection of HIV
Opportunistic Infection *changes in taste sensation *difficulty swallowing *retrosternal pain *white exudate and inflammation of mouth and back of throat candida albican stomatitis (esophagitis)
Opportunistic Infection *fever, headache, and blurred vision *nausea and vomiting *stiff neck, mental status changes and seizures Cryptococcus neoformans (severe, debilitating meningitis)
Opportunistic infection *significant factor in morbidity and mortality *fever and malaise, weight loss, fatigue *lymphadenopathy, visual impairment *colitis, encephalitis, pneumonitis *adrenalitis, hepatitis, disseminated infection *retinochoroiditis Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Opportunistic Infection *most common malignancy *small, purplish-brown, non-painful, nonpruritic, palpable lesions occuring on any part of the body *most commonly seen on the skin *diagnosed by biopsy Kaposi's Carcinoma
contact with antigen (childhood diseases), develops slowly; protective within weeks; long-term and specific active/natural aquired specific deficiency
immunization with antigen (immunization with live/killed vaccine) protective in a few weeks- lasts several years - booster often needed active/artfical aquired specific deficiency
transplacental and colostrum transfer; temporary (lasts months) passive/natural aquired specific deficiency
injection of serum from immune human/animal. Immediate immunity (lasts several weeks) passive/artificial aquired specific deficiency
an RNA virus;replicates inside a living cell, transcribes into DNA, which enters cell nuclei, becoming a permanent part of genetic structure; can remain dormant for 8-10years as HIV;destroys CD4+T cells;cell count <200;opportunistic infections may occur AIDS (aquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
Transmission of _______ occurs with contaminated blood or body fluid, sharing IV drug needles, sexual contact, transplacental, and possibly through breast milk HIV/AIDS
what is recommended for diet/nutrition with a patient with HIV? High Protein and Calories. No fresh vegetables/fruits.
what drugs (type) are used to treat HIV? antiretroviral agents
a profound defect in the immune system that strikes previously healthy individuals who have no known cause for the immunosupression. AIDS
a collection of protein molecules manufactured by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of specific antigens Antibodies
specific substances that induce the development of an immune response Antigens
direct, indirect, or droplet contact of an infectious agent to a host contact transmission
one of the herpes-type viruses, commonly found in AIDS patients and also in well homosexuals CMV
linked with Burkitts Lymphoma and with nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also the cause of monocucleosis common in adolescents and young adults. In the herpes virus family Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
transmitted fecal-oral hepatitis virus Hep A
hepatitis associated with liver cancer and transmitted by blood transfusions, mother to newborn, or through saliva, breast milk or genital secretions Hep B
hepatitis transmitted blood to blood Hep C
equips an individual to defend against infection Immune system
the time between infection by a disease- causing organism and the onset or overt symptoms of the disease incubation period
presence in the body of a pathogen infection
a protein substance thought to be produced or released by cells after viral infection or by other stimuli interferon
an abnormal condition of the lymph nodes and glads, in which the nodes enlarge, grow, swell and become palpable Lymphadenopathy
oral structures throughout body that pass lymphocytes lymphnodes
originate in the bone marrow, pass through blood stream, and enter other organs lymphocytes
cells found in blood stream that act part of bodys immune system "eaters" macrophages
various infectious organisms, (virus, fungi, parasites) which infect the immune system of a host that is compromised and cannot defend against a disease opportunistic infections
microorganism or substance that is capable of producing diseases pathogens
a form of pneumonia caused by a protozoan parasite pneumocystitis carinii penumonia (PCP)
virus that are known to cause cancer in animals retroviruses
a group of infections caused by viruses. The incubation periods are very long, and the clinical expressions of disease are low in progression slow virus infections
removes worn-out cells from the circulatory system and is a "grave-yard" for RBC's, reintroducing iron from hemoglobin after red cell death spleen
one of the subpopulations of T-lymphocytes that aid in the cytotoxic or killing function of T-lymphocytes T-helper cells
responsible for the development of lymphocytes thymus
redness, warmth, swelling, pain/tenderness, loss of function are all signs of __________. inflammation with a localized infections
bloody, serous, cloudy, purulent are ________. types of drainage with a localized infection
bacterial skin infection with involvment of connective tissue cellulitis
weakness, headache, malaise, fever, increased, pulse, hypotension generalized infections
most common nosocomial infection UTI
most common nosocomial organism staphylococcus aureus
what percentage of hospital patients aquire a nosocomial infection during their stay? 5% or nearly 2 million
how can you prevent nosocomial infections with your external environment? handwashing
how can you prevent nosocomial infections with your internal environment? good nutrition and personal hygiene
in what way can you prevent nosocomial UTI's? strict aseptic technique during instrumentation
in what way can you prevent nosocomial surgical wound infections? handwashing and surgical asepsis
in what way can you prevent nosocomial respiratory infections? clean nebulizers
in what way can you prevent nosocomial bacteremias? excellent sterile technique with intravascular systems
name standard precautions (PPE) handwashing, gloves, masks, eye protection, face shield, gowns
when should you use standard precautions? when you may come in contact with body fluids, blood, secretions, excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes
what is airborne precautions, and what precautions should be used? pathogens are <5 microns transported in air.private room w/ negative air-pressure,door closed at all times & pt is not to leave room.Wear a mask & can only be combined if it is with a pt with the same organism. pt to wear mask when transported
what kind of mask is worn with a TB patient? fit-test respirator mask
measles, tb, chickenpox, and shingles are all __________ precautions airborne
what is droplet precautions, and what precautions should be used? droplets >5microns. involves contact with mucous membranes through coughing, sneezing, talking, or suctioning. private room unless another pt with same organism.must wear mask if coming within 3 feet of pt. pt on mask if transported.door may be open
diptheria, pharyngitis, pneumonia, meningitis, mumps, influenza are all ____________ precautions droplet
what is contact precautions, and what precautions should be used? needed with pt care that require skin-to-skin contact or contact with inanimate objects in pts environment.private room or with pt with same organism.clean gloves when entering room; gown if coming in contact with pt. pt to wear gloves & gown leaving room
MRSA, VRE, pediculosis, scabies, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hepatitis A, GI, wound or urinary infections, Cdiff are all _______ precautions contact
what is neutropenic precautions, and what precautions should be used (part 1 of 2)? prevent infection among clients with immunosupression. asses skin integrity Q8hrs;auscultate breath sounds, presence of cough, sore throat;check temp Q4hrs;monitor CBC;private room;thorough hand hygiene before entering room;no staff with temp/cold
what is neutropenic precautions, and waht precautions should be used (part 2 of 2)? no fresh flowers or standing water; clean room daily; low microbial diet:no fresh salads,unpeeled fruits or veggies; deep breathe q4hrs; meticulous body hygiene; inspect IV site and give meticulous care
Created by: nickijohnson07