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Sociology - CH 7

Sociology Chapter 7

Define Stratification the division of people via social economic layers (or stratas)
What are the 3 systems of stratification? Slavery, Caste, Class
Define Caste & explain how they are based? Caste is a system in which ones social class is set for life based upon status at birth. Castes are based economically. Based: 1.) determined at birth 2.) hierarchy is maintained through marriage 3.) cultural beliefs preserve these roles.
What are Varnas? And provide the 5 categories. Varnas are the collective name of 4 major castes 1.) Brahmins - leaders 2.) Ksyatriyas - soldiers 3.) Vaisyays - farmers 4.) Shudras - laborers 5.) Dalits - oppressed untouchable people
What are the 5 consequences of Social Class? Give explanations as well. 1.) Family - pressure to marry someone of your families liking. 2.) Education - higher education higher social class 3.) Health - lack health insurance. 4.) Technology - do not know how to use tech for job. 5.) Social life - vacations
Define Intergenerational Your parents are unemployed but you get a job. Children are relative to their parents
Define Intragenerational Mobility within a working life, advancing in career field
Differ Absolute Poverty and Relative Poverty Absolute -> lack basic resources to maintain healthy existence. Relative - poor compared to the standards of living for the majority.
What is the current Poverty level? Family of 4 living on less than $22,050 annually. 1 in 7 Americans are currently living in poverty.
How is the poverty line calculated? The government calculates that this line is equal to 3 times the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet with no frills.
How are Children affected in poverty? They are more likely to live in poverty, their unable to work. Poverty is much greater on minority children because it is harder for their parents to get work.
Define the Culture of Poverty developed by Oscar Lewis. It's the theory that poverty is not a result of individual set backs but is instead the outcome of a larger social atmosphere. Refers to values, and habits that are common among people living under these conditions.
What is the disproportion of the poor in relation to gender, age and race? Race -> Racial minorities are more likely to be poor. Gender -> increase of divorce and in single women having children. Age -> unable to work
Define the Feminization of Poverty an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female. Growing trend of more and more women living in poverty.
Define Life Chances Developed by Weber, its your access to goods and services that aid in your survival and achieving economic prosperity.
What are 3 affects of Social Exclusions? 1.) cut off from involvement in wider society 2.) may be defined opportunities for self betterment 3.) Homeless - most extreme example.
Define Marx theory on stratification Modern societies are divide into those who own the means of production and those who sell their labor. Primary emphasis on Class. Objectively given characteristics of economics.
Define Weber theory of stratification Accepted similar view to Marx. Distinguised another aspect of stratification being Status. Prestige is the esteem or "social honor" given to individuals or groups.
Davis and Moore's function of stratification it has beneficial consequences for society. Certain positions are more important & require special skills. Only a limited number of people have the talent that can be trained.
Tumin's function of stratification A particular role is difficult to measure and the rewards do not necessarily reflect their actual importance.
Define Social Mobility the movement of individuals between different class positions as a result of changes in occupation, wealth or income
Define Exchange Mobility an exchange of positions such that more talented people in each generation move up while the less talented move down.
Define Vertical Mobility movement along the socioeconomic scale.
Created by: KateKfoxx