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Review for Nursing I Final (CCBC)

ANA defined nursing as: protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities,prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, population.
Who studied and impemented methods to improve battlefield sanitation during the Crimean War. Aka Mother of Nursing Florence Nightingale
Founder of the American Red Cross Clara Barton
Code of Ethics Philosophical ideals of right and wrong that define the principles you will use to provide care to your clients.
Four concepts of nursing 1.Person 2.Environment 3.Health 4.Nursing
ANA makes decisions about functions,activites, and goals.
NLN Ensure the public need for nursing will be met
NSNA contribute to nursing education, student ran, works with other RN schools.
Beneficence Doing good for someone or something.
Non-maleficence not harming.
Autonomy Independence and self direction.
Justice Fair and equal distribution.
Veracity Truth telling.
Fidelity Faithfull commitment.
Confidentiality Direct involvment of care, no discussion, consent for release of information.
Assault threat.
Battery Touching.
Defamation. False communication resulting in injury to persons reputation.
Liable Written defemation.
Slander Verbal defemation.
Fraud Purposeful, misrepresentation of self that causes harm.
Invasion of privacy Disclosure of private info. to inapropriate party.
False imprisonment Restraining someone against their will.
Nursing Process steps: Assess.Analyze.Plan.Implement.Evaluate.
Critical Thinking: form conclusions, make decisions, draw inferences, and reflect. Helps nurse fine options to solve problems.
Maslow's Hierarchy a. Physiological b. saftey and security c. love and belongingness d. esteem e. self-actualization f. cognitive a. aesthetic
Agent Internal and external factors leading to disease.
Host Person susceptible to disease.
Environment Factors outside the host.
Prevention Promotion of wellness eg)exercise
Primary Prevention Interventions to decrease risk of disease eg) immunizations
Secondary Prevention Early interventions to stop a disease eg)diabtic insulin.
Tertiary Prevention Long term,chronic,rehab. eg)diabetic,cancer patient
Regulation of body temperature Hypothalamus.
Means of heat production: 1.Metabolism of food 2.exercise 3.thyroid hormone 4.sympathetic nervous system
Means of heat loss: 1.radiatioin 2.convection 3.evaporation 4.conduction
Radiation transfer of heat from surface to surface.
Convection trasnfer of heat by motion of heat or fluid.
Evaporation conversion of liquid to a vapor/gas.
Conduction transfer of heat to object
Diaphoresis Visible persperation primarly occurs on foreheard and upper thorax.
Cicadian Rhythm Predictable temperature fluctuation over 24 hr time period (1-2)degree decrease during 1-4 am and an increase during 4-5 pm.
pyrexia Fever. occurs because heat loss mechanisms are unable to keep pace with the increased heat production, resulting in increased body temperature
Conversaion Scale C to F Multiply by 1.8 and add 32
Coversion Scale F to C Subtract 32 and divide bt 1.8
Lanoxin Slows down h/r
Atropine Increase h/r, given during a code
Beta B Blockers Decrease h/r, classification of drugs. must check h/r prior to admin.
Diuretics drug classification eg)Lasiks makes you pee!
Tachycardia increased h/r. greater than 100.
Bradycardia decreased h/r. less than 60.
Reception Stimulation of receptor such as light, touch, or sound.
Perception Intergration and interpretation of stimuli.
Reaction Only the most import stimuli will elict a reaction.
Sensory Receptors a. Reticular activating system (RAS) 2. Nervous pathways to the brain .
Five senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste.
Perception = A conscious process of selecting,organzing and interpreting sensory input.
A healthy balance between stimuli = Healthy well being.
Nervous Pathways to the brain The alerting system of the perception.
Thruput "experiences"
Output "interprets" as pleasant or unpleasant.
Factors affecting perception environment, prevouis experience, lifestyle habits,illness,medications, social isolation.
Lifestyle and habits eg) fast paced vs. slow paces, noisy vs. quite, impact sense of "sensory overload"
Illness eg)visual defects, fatigue, and parasthesias
Meddications may damage auditory nerve,narcotics decrease awareness
social isolation develops with perceptive alterations. due to age, visual changes, hearing decrease and decrease in sensory cells.
ototoxic perm. damage to the auditory nerve eg) gentamycin.
Proprioceptive changes common after the age of 60,increased difficulty with blance,spatial orientation and coordination.
Meaningful stiumuli reduces the incidence of sensory deprivation. eg)pets,visitors. things that affect people.
Sensory deficits deficit in the normal function of sensory reception and perception. impaited function in sensory reception or perception eg)blindness, deafness, < taste and < smell.
Sensory deprivation inadequate quality or quantity of stimulation.Lessing or lack of meaninful sensory stimuli,montonous sensory input,or interference with info processing.
Sensory overload reception of multiple sensory stimuli. unable to manafe intensity or quantity of incoming sensory stimuli. feel overwhelmed, not in control.
altered sensory reception cord or brain damage, sleep deprivation.
Hallucination sensory impressions with no basis in reality
Delusions beliefs not based in reality and reflect unconscious need or fear
Orientation to the environment address the client by name, place call light w.in reach, use nightlight,reduce clutter.
Controlling stimuli Reduce sensory overload, combine RN activites, control extraneous noise.
Restorative and continuing care. Socialization communication,physical contact,mutual groups.
Restorative and continuing care. Promoting self-care increase self-esteem, and saftey awareness.
Aphasia Can not verbally communicate or gargled speech.
Cognitive function systematic way in whic a person:thinks,reasons,and uses lanquage.
Attention concentration and taking in specific sensory stimuli
Awareness consciousness
Memory capability to recall at least once
Learning capability to store memories
Orientation persons knows his/her location in dimensions of time and place.
Factors affecting normal cognitive funtion adequate blood flow to brain,nutrition and metabolism(brain cells need glucose, vitamins and minerals also essential)fluid and electrolytes < NA cause < glucose, > NA causes > glucose and CA, sleep rest, organization of stiumuli.
Denentia progressive impairment of intellectual funtion and memory, occurs gradually. types: alzheimer's, circulatory impairment, and infectious agents
Delusions fixed false beliefes.
Hallucinations per4ceptions arising from person's own thoughts
Sundowners Syndrome acute confusion after sundown
Created by: alexanmercure