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Med Term Test 4. SFC

Musculoskeletal System

QuestionAnswer
periosteum outermost layer of bone
compact bone dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous bone contains little spaces or cavities like a sponge; w/i layers of compact bone
endosteum membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis shaft of the long bones
epiphysis end of each long bone
bone marrow material found in cavities of bones
red bone marrow thick, blood-like material found in flat bones & ends of long bones; location of RBC formation
yellow marrow soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
lamina part of the vertebral arch
pelvic bone 3 bones fused together: ischium: lower portion on which one sits ilium: upper, wing-shaped part on each side pubis: anterior portion
acetabulum large socket in pelvic bone for head of the femur
acromion process part of scapula
olecranon process forms elbow
articular cartilage smooth layer of gristle covering contacting surface of joints
meniscus crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
synovia fluid secreted by the synovial membrane & found in joint cavities
bursa fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament flexible, tough band of fibrous CT that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon band of fibrous CT that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
abduction movement of drawing away from the middle
adduction movement of drawing toward the middle
inversion turning inward
eversion turning outward
extension movement in which limb is in straight position
flexion movement in which limb is bent
pronation movement that turns the palm down
supination movement that turns the palm up
rotation turning around its own axis
rachi/o spine, vertebral column
spondyl/o vertebra
ankyl/o crooked, stiff, bent
kinesi/o movement, motion
kyph/o hump
lord/o bent forward
lamin/o lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)
myel/o bone marrow
petr/o stone
scoli/o crooked, curved
myos/o muscle
sym-, syn- together, joined
-asthenia weakness
-clasis, -clasia, -clast break
-desis surgical fixation, fusion
-physis growth
-schisis split, fissure
ankylosing spondylitis form of arthritis that first affects the spine & adjacent structures & that progressively causes a forward bend of the spine
bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe; caused by poorly fitted shoes or hereditary
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve; symptoms: pain & paresthesia in portions of the hands & fingers
Colles fracture a type of wrist fracture; fx at lower end of the radius, distal fragment displaced backward
exostosis abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone; a.k.a. spur
fracture (fx) broken bone
gout dz in which an excessive amt of uric acid in the blood causes Na urate crystals to be deposited in the joints, esp that of the great toe, producing arthritis
herniated disk rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows contents to protrude thru it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots
Lyme dz infection caused by a bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi, carried by deer ticks & transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick; symptoms caused by body's immune response: rash at site of bite, fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue; Tx: antibiotics
muscular dystrophy (MD) group of hereditary dzs w/ muscle degeneration & weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG) chronic dz of muscle weakness, thought to be caused by defect in transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell; face, larynx, and throat frequently affected, but no true paralysis of muscles exists
osteoporosis abnormal loss of bone density occurring predominantly in postmenopausal women, can lead to an increase in the fractures of the ribs, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic systemic dz w/ autoimmune inflammatory changes in the CT thru/o the body
spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal w/ compression of nerve roots; congenital or due to spinal degeneration; symptoms: pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs & numbness or tingling in the lower extremeties
spondylolisthesis forward slipping of one vertebra over another
chiropodist, podiatrist specialist in Tx and Dx dz and disorders of the foot; both medical & surgical Tx
chiropractic system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
chiropractor specialist in chiropractic
crepitus crackling sound heard when 2 bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint
orthopedics branch of medicine dealing w/ the study & Tx of dz & abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist physician who specializes in branch of medicine dealing w/ the study & Tx of dz & abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthotics making & fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities
orthotist a person who specializes in making orthopedic appliances
osteopath physician who specializes in the branch of medicine that uses usual forms of Dx & Tx but places greater emphasis on the role of relation b/w body organs & the musculoskel system
osteopathy branch of medicine that uses usual forms of Dx & Tx but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation b/w body organs & the musculoskel system; may include manipulation in Tx
prosthesis an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome (abbr)
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus (abbr)
OA osteoarthritis (abbr)
THA total hip arthroplasty (abbr)
ortho orthopedics (abbr)
Created by: 2049796